Alternative Civilizations: Dinosaurs, Rats, dolphins

People are far from the only representatives of the animal kingdom, which the mind could develop. Even civilizations can appear on our planet more than once – and far from the fact that they will be created like us, primates. It’s no secret that ordinary intellectual chimpanzees are not inferior to a two-year-old child. Gorillas, chimpanzees and even orangutans can be taught to explain themselves in deaf and dumb language and even communicate using the keyboard. They are able joke, swear, talk about the past and the future. It only means one thing – representatives of the alternative mind live side by side with us, and everywhere. The mind of the dinosaurs Examples of animals that at one time embarked on the path of “intellectualization”, but by other reasons could not reach the desired level, in There are many paleontological annals. If literally digging deeply, even dinosaurs can be named among them, namely – living at the end of the Cretaceous theropod period. Alternative civilizations: Dinosaurs, rats, dolphinsPhotos from open sources Among them there were relatively smart forms: their brain, although it remained a little more than that of chicken, for dinosaurs was still great. Moreover, some paleontologists argue that the rate of increase in the brain the theropod was comparable to the rate of increase in the brain in our ancestors of Australopithecus. True, in those, the brain began to grow with marks 400 g, which can not be said about theropods. But these words, quite possibly, a descendant of ancient dinosaurs would write now, if not the disaster that ruined their “career” that happened 65 million years ago and leading to total death. Photos from open sources Aggression – a hindrance to intelligence However, and closer to our time, many animals also entered slippery path of the development of the mind. Most of them, of course, primates. At least among this squad, the “smartest” are found most often. An example is baboons. The first baboons quite clearly evolved towards brain enlargement. The rate of increase in these animals was the same as in the apes. However the baboons went along the path of strengthening the hierarchy in the group and, being too carried away by the internal competition, forever “forgot” about the development of intelligence. Planet monkeys There were many potential candidates for the development of the mind and among anthropoid hominid monkeys. So, you can remember fossil species of primates of the Miocene era – oreopithecines, “swamp monkeys “whose remains were found in Italy and East Africa. This is a very peculiar species of monkeys that actually switched to upright posture, although not quite full: moving on two legs, swamp monkeys supported themselves, clinging to branches. But still hands were almost free for complex instrumental activities. In addition, these animals had small jaws, therefore, nothing prevented the brain from increasing in size. Gigantopithecus Photo from open sources Alas, about 7 million years ago with Oreopithecus happened trouble. The cooling and drainage of the climate led to the fact that their native marshy island is connected to the mainland part, and the oreopithecines that had previously evolved in the absence of predators were completely unprepared for their appearance. The fate of Oreopithecus was predetermined, they simply ate. Interesting that the same climate changes have made our ancestors they got down from the trees, and, in the end, they became people. But we have to remember that they evolved in Africa in a constant environment ferocious predators, therefore, were quite ready for this. Other an example is gigantopithecus. These are the biggest monkeys of all time and peoples “whose remains were discovered in Southeast Asia. Despite the fact that a full-fledged skull of giantpithecans was not found before so far, scientists have at their disposal amazing jaws, which is one and a half times more than even the gorilla. Based on their sizes, scientists conclude that the head and body of these monkeys, too were very big. Meanwhile, the maximum brain volume of the same gorillas approaching the minimum brain volume of modern human, and giantpithec brain had more than gorilla. It turns out that the gigantopithecus had a brain almost the same as that of modern man! It is clear, of course, that the monkey itself You can’t call it miniature, but still, for the brain, the size is value, therefore, probably the giant petitas were pretty smart. But, alas, they were too jealous of their menu, in which only plant foods were included. Their huge chewing muscles and teeth took up so much space that the brain was simply “nowhere” grow. As a result, giant-feeding plants disappeared from the face of the Earth on the order of 100 thousand. years ago, giving way to less picky species. However, it is possible that not without the direct participation of our ancestors or Pithecanthropus. Already not a monkey, not yet a man In more the line of primates close to us, intellectual forms also arose more than once, moreover, they have moved further than the oreopithecines and gigantopithecus. For example, these were massive Australopithecus. Photos from open sources Despite the fact that they, too preferred exclusively vegetarian menu, their hands were free, and, moreover, much better suited for making stone tools than our closer ancestors, that have already appeared in the same Africa in their neighborhood. Discussions on whether Australopithecus made stone tools to this day, at the same sites of these highly developed such tools find primates, but not on others. Talk about that these tools were left by our ancestors is not necessary, because no other remains than the bones of massive Australopithecus, near such parking there is no mention. This species is probably still made stone tools, but this did not always happen and not everywhere. The same, incidentally, is typical of modern chimpanzees. One thing is obvious: a complex process such as manufacturing stone tools, arose on our planet independently repeatedly. Unlucky Savage People The line of our ancestors – early Homo – also branching, and it also appeared several times alternative to humanity. The most famous of them are Neanderthals of Europe, but there were others, for example, people from the island Java. They lived in a tropical climate, without any connection with the rest of the world. Therefore, their development went their own way an amazing way: for example, it is believed that the Javanese had few stone tools, but wooden ones were used in abundance made from local bamboo. However, in the end, they became extinct and Javanese, and, apparently, without any external interventions. By the way, in anthropological history there are examples and intellectual regression. Such a nuisance has happened for example, with the “hobbits” of the island of Flores. About 800 thousand years ago he was apparently populated by the completely normal homo. But life on paradise island, just like on the island of Fools from the story “Dunno on the moon, “led the hobbit brain to begin rapidly decrease in volume until it diminishes to the brain of a chimpanzee. The most the unexpected is that, despite this, the tools of the “hobbits” remained quite complex until the very end. Lucky Homo sapiens In a word, modern man is not so much a being unique how much lucky. Neanderthals covered volcanoes and glaciers, “hobbits” and Javanese relaxed on the islands of paradise. Massive hominids ate too many plants and too little meat – and all this time, human evolution took place in conditions of successful coincidences … However, the last 25 thousand years reducing the size of our brain forces anthropologists beware. There are fears that our future is far from right. rosy, as we would like. “Why don’t people fly like birds? “In fact, encephalization is an increase in size brain relative to body size – characteristic of many groups animals, not only for mammals, but also for birds, reptiles and even reptiles, for example, turtles. However for each of these groups impose certain circumstances restrictions on this process. Photo from open sources For example, a lot of clever women among birds. Crows and some parrots in terms of “intelligence” are on primacy level. But the birds must fly, and do it with a big and a heavy head is difficult – to facilitate the flight of the ancestors of birds even had to sacrifice teeth. Also for coordination movements in flight birds require an exceptionally large cerebellum, and spaces to enlarge the forebrain in their tiny turtles just do not stay. There is fish – no mind intelligent creatures live in water. For example, cetaceans: for inhabitants of the sea there are practically no restrictions on mass. But no they have hands – and therefore there is no labor instrumental activities. And despite the fact that the “labor concept” criticized a lot over the past decades, finally “cancel” it has not yet succeeded. Well, if there is no incentive to complicate motor activity, there is no sense for the development of the brain. Photos from open sources ability of dolphins, and most importantly – a very high level of their socialization. But despite all kinds of talk about the dolphin civilizations, “scientists adamant: dolphins have no incentive to intelligence development. To catch a fish, a lot of mind is not necessary, therefore dolphins to this day remain dolphins. Predators and ungulates Similar situation in many mammals. Bears or raccoons are much like primates – they are omnivores, can Climb trees, live in groups … But they have too much the sense of smell is developed, which means that the olfactory shares are also developed brain, which interfere with the increase in its other parts. In addition, and their brush cannot be fully called grasping, because on the fingers there are claws. Some, however, say that intelligent creature can evolve from american raccoon nosuh. However, noses have been around for 20 million years, and evolution their brain has not yet shown miracles of rapid development. Primates for the same period, they turned into a man. Ungulates the familiar herbivore and necessity interfere with becoming smarter chew a lot of food, have large jaws and teeth. Same concerns rodents. Animals that have many cubs and a small life expectancy, just once – at first they need to survive and grow, then multiply quickly. For a luxury like intelligence, there is simply no time in their brief lives. Megazostrodon (Megazostrodon) – an extinct animal, the only known representative of the Megazostrodontidae family. Considered one of the first representatives of mammals. His remains are found in South Africa, in sediments whose age is estimated at about 200 million years. According to scientists, this species belongs to the last stage of transition from cynodonts to real mammals. Photo from open sources Gray mouse and world domination Despite all this, theoretically someday on Earth they can other intelligent species will appear. After all, if something happened alone times, then it can happen both in the second and in the twenty-fifth. Moreover, such a trend, as we now know, was observed at our planet for a long time. Moreover, for some mysterious biological law the most interesting and exotic forms most often arise from very attractive creatures. Something small, gray with a thin tail often reaches exceptional evolutionary results (however, often we we can observe this among people). That was the case once with one of the common ancestors of all mammals – a tiny nondescript the beast with the awesome name megazostrodon. This “shabby mouse” appeared in the time of dinosaurs, but, unlike scaly giants, managed to survive the mass extinction – she just I sat out in my hole, eating what I had to. Therefore among potential modern candidates for civilization like oddly, most often called some insectivores and rodents, such as shrews and rats. So “humanity” can arise on our planet more than once. And quite possibly the look it will be far from what we are used to. Naked Science, 2014

Africa Time Dolphins Dinosaurs Life Climate Rats Island Birds Fish Evolution

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