A photo from open sources In the myths of Greece and Rome, the gods were part everyday life: they could steal your daughter or become yours lover, help you win the war or get rid of the disease. Legendary heroes even descended into the underworld of the dead – Greek Hades and Roman Pluto. The gods of the ancients did not live in some parallel world, and next to a person. On completely the real Mount Olympus was the palace of Lord Zeus, and the entrance to hell could be found among numerous underground caves, of which due to the active geology of the Mediterranean gray. Such gates were found by Italian archaeologists leading excavations of the Greco-Roman Hierapolis (modern Pamukkale in Turkey). Pilgrims from all over the classical world once flocked there to bathe in its hot springs and bow to the gods of the underground of peace in Plutonion, a temple built above a cave. A photo Open Source Reconstruction of Plutonion (Image Francesco D’Andria). Employees of the University of Salento during led by Francesco D’Andria traced the path of the hot springs and opened the entrance to the cave. Engraved Dedication to Pluto confirmed their suspicions. Ancient Greek geographer Strabo, talking about his travels in Asia Minor in recent years to n e., mentioned that there is a hole under Plutonion, enough big so that a person can squeeze into it, and behind it – a huge a depth filled with dense steam, which can hardly be distinguished bottom. Animals that were lowered there died instantly. Even the bulls Once there, they could not stand it. Experienced Ministers of Pluto demonstrated their strength by entering a gassed crevice and exiting alive (apparently holding their breath and taking advantage of the known them areas of safe air in the cave), while the bird it was enough to fly by to fall lifeless. Indeed, many bird remains have been found during excavations. IN further archaeologists plan to devote their time to the study of the temple. It should be noted that the ancients did not imagine the underworld like Christians. This is the place where all the dead fall, not only sinners. In ancient Egypt, it was believed that properly prepared body (to reunite all parts of the soul) guarantees a late stay in a beautiful river valley, very similar to the banks of the Nile. Only the one over whom the rite was not performed prepared a dark and gloomy place full of obstacles. First the text that has reached us about visiting the afterlife refers by about 1900 BC e. Sumerian cuneiform tablet talks about the visit to the country of death of the goddess Inanna (Ishtar). Is not just a tour: the Greeks travel a certain deity in the underworld or through it marked a change of seasons, at Egyptians – day and night, with Maya – creation of the world. Plutonions existed throughout the Greek Eastern Mediterranean, especially in places where underground gases exit to the surface (as in Eleusine). It was believed that the Acheron River in northwestern Greece from time to go down straight to Hades. In Sicily, near Etna, there is a cleft through which the god Hades, according to legend, brought Persephone to the underworld, where she ate six pomegranate seeds, thereby condemning the earth to six months of winter each year. It was said that the Roman hero Aeneas entered the tartar across the lake Averno (or near it) in the vicinity of Naples. Another legend connects with this place the journey of Odyssey. In the Judean hills Jerusalem traces of pagan rituals performed in the cave the twins. This place was also considered one of the many entrances. in the “kingdom of gloomy Hades.” As for Central America, then Masaya volcano in Nicaragua in the 16th century was called by the Spaniards hellish throat. And the numerous caves of the Yucatan Peninsula fascinated Mayans, who sacrificed people there to the gods of the underworld. The Mayan myth of the creation of the world tells about the twins who defeated the evil gods of the underworld, Shibalba, and brought to the surface of the younger gods who laid the foundation for our world. Prepared by materials National Geographic.
Pluto Cave Time Mayan Civilization