A photo from open sources
Our ideas about the aesculapius of antiquity are so small that some facts opening up to a modern person, just shocked. So, it turns out, surgery still existed in stone age! And ancient Greece and Egypt were healers complicated operations, which are quite difficult in our time. Perhaps everything is explained by our relationship to the oldest representatives of the human race. We used to consider them cruel and merciless. The struggle for survival and hunger – that’s all the explanation. But the findings of archaeologists make us reconsider our approach to the ancient to man.
One of the most striking examples calling into question the statement scientists about the life expectancy of ancient people, is a find in Shanidar Cave – Northern Iraq. Archaeological expedition which led by R. Soletski, 9 male skeletons were discovered Neanderthals who lived 60-30 thousand years ago. In the burial was found the skeleton of a 40-year-old disabled man. What value did he represent for the tribe? The eye socket was damaged, possibly he couldn’t see, an overgrown fracture was found on his left foot, the left leg was disfigured by arthritis, and the teeth were completely worn out! It’s in fundamentally changes the confidence of contemporaries that in ancient society there was no place for pity or mercy. However, the most striking thing is he had no left hand. Skeleton Specialists it became clear that perhaps disfigured in a duel or the attacking beast, she was amputated by an ancient surgeon, about which says the characteristic rounded shape of the bone. About the incredible fact that a stone age man knew how to conduct operations, says another astounding find. At the end of the 20th century, not far from the French 45 ancient villages were excavated by the village of Ensisheim burials with the remains of 47 people of the Stone Age. However special attention was drawn to the skeleton of a 50-year-old man who had 2 neat holes in the skull. No cracks near the hole testified to a surgical operation. Hole in the front of the forehead in diameter was about 6 cm. And in the upper part there was another skull, wider by 2 centimeters, but, of course, also surgical origin. “Most holes in turtles usually insignificant and difficult to judge by them, are they the result of surgery or just a break skulls. But in our case, you can see smooth, rounded edges rather large trepanations, that is, these holes have clearly artificial character, “says a participant in the excavation, archaeologist Sandra Pickler of the University of Freiburg in Germany. Incredible, but true: there were no infections, no infections. Ancient the patient tolerated both operations well. This is indicated by growths over operated places: the frontal opening is completely covered a thin layer of bone, and the cranial half. “So these ancient of people there was a very good surgeon and some special ways of suppressing infections, “Sandra Pickhler came to this conclusion. According to specialists, it took about two years to heal the wounds. A because the operation was carried out twice. What caused the operation – not it is known. But they were carried out, apparently, flint knives. They are not only were not inferior in severity to modern scalpels, but also had a disinfecting effect – silicon particles did not allow multiply by bacteria. “The trepanation is so masterful that they cannot be called the most ancient. The surgeon should have had long practice. The fact of detection on one skull of traces immediately two trepanations indirectly confirms this: if there were only one operation, one could say that the ancient surgeon it was just luck. But since the patient survived after the second operation, that means the doctor had certain skills and knew what to do to do, “said Pickler. But the researcher of the ancient Incas Miloslav Sting calls among the oldest medical instruments “bronze scalpels of various sizes, tweezers, needles, brackets, Tumi bronze knives reminiscent of a kitchen chopping knife. As well as the clamps through which Inca healers dragged veins to stop bleeding. “Modern doctors were amazed when they had the opportunity get acquainted with the ancient Egyptian “Smith Papyrus” from 1700 to AD Already in those days, there were special medical tools, including copper needles for suturing wounds. In what is the mysterious mystery of the knowledge of the ancient Aesculapius? Striking the fact that this “medical treatise” is a copy of more an early spring dating back to 2700 BC It is possession the technique of surgery allowed the ancient Egyptians to advance in areas of mummification. So, just recently it became known that before how to proceed to embalming the bodies of the dead, ancient surgeons trained on skeletons. The most striking find was the skeleton I go, found in 1914. The flesh was expertly separated from the bone. “They probably already knew that the flesh was decaying, and therefore considered that it is better to embalm bones “, – so considers biochemist Ulrich Weser from the University of Tübingen. The bones were treated with a special antiseptic solution. Embalming turned out to be so perfect that it remained intact and active enzyme (enzyme) – alkaline phosphatase. She managed to highlight from the collarbone. It is impossible not to say about amazing abilities Indian healers. Training was conducted in special schools. It was in India in ancient times that the first the operation, which received much later the name “caesarean section”. Mysticism envelops ancient art. And the answer to the question is, how ancient people received divine knowledge – alas, no one famous.