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The memory of Sumer and Sumerians died thousands of years ago. About them not mention Greek chroniclers. In materials available to us from Mesopotamia, which mankind had before the era of the great discoveries, we will not find a word about Sumer. Even the Bible speaks of Chaldean city of Ur. Not a word about Sumerians! Curious fact! TO one of the most ancient settlements was discovered in 1948. expedition of Robert Braidwood settlement in Kalat Jarmo, which arose, apparently in the VII millennium. It was at about 50 km east of the city of Kirkuk, in the northern part of Mesopotamia plains, between the rivers Nizhny Zab and Diyala. There are no clay vessels here discovered – they must have not been able to do it yet. But found many clay figures of animals, thanks to which it is known that the inhabitants of Jarmo have already domesticated dogs, pigs, goats and sheep. Between the stones that served as a millstone, grain was preserved. However, since no stone hoes have been discovered, scientists suggest that the inhabitants of Jarmo did not yet know how to cultivate the land, but only collected wild cereals. But could not a hoe be wooden? .. Clay figurines of the mother goddess testify to the existence of already the beginnings of religion. The method of radiocarbon analysis established that a settlement in Jarmo arose no later than 4750 BC At excavations in ur in the deepest layers traces were discovered settlements of the second half of the V millennium. There is some similarity in the decoration of clay vessels found in the early layers Ered, and vessels from Tell Khalaf, but the differences between them much bigger. Clay items found directly above virgin layer, i.e. over the clear sand. Not found in Ered only vessels, tools, weapons and everyday items, but and the ruins of a small temple built from sun-dried brick and dating back to the earliest period of the settlement. This temple, the first of fourteen (if not seventeen) prehistoric sanctuaries erected one after another in the same place by successive generations of architects, is considered the oldest in this area of the globe. Tell El Obeid Settlement, once located on the banks of the Euphrates, arose, apparently, at the turn V and IV millennia BC The influence of the Obeid culture extended far beyond the southern part of the Mesopotamia valley. Settlements with a culture of this type, resembling not only ceramic products and tools, but also methods of burial, found in the vicinity of Mosul. Scientists have identified signs of community cultures El Obeid and some settlements located on the Iranian Highlands and even in the Indus valley. So, in the era of El Obeid culture the population of southern Mesopotamia made beads from lapis lazuli and jewelry made of green semiprecious amazonite stone. These stones in Mesopotamia were not mined, but imported: amazonite – from the central areas of India or Transbaikalia, and lapis lazuli – from Central Asia. Consequently, the trade ties of the oldest population of South Mesopotamia was geographically very wide. Most scientists argue that it was in the heyday of the culture of El Obeid, i.e. in the second half of the 4th millennium, the Sumerians appear in Mesopotamia – the people who in later written documents call black-headed oneself. Where and when, in what era did the Sumerians – here is the main, difficult and, as many researchers say, insoluble riddle. The opinions of scientists on these issues are extremely perhaps contradictory and coincide now, only in one thing: the Sumerians – alien people. How did the conquest of Mesopotamia come from? when, in what way did the “blackheads” come to Mesopotamia? .. I see. one thing: it was a nation ethnically alien in language and culture to the Semitic tribes who settled northern Mesopotamia approximately at the same time or a little later. Many years of searching for more or less significant language group, akin to the language of the Sumerians, nor to what they didn’t bring, although they searched everywhere – from Central Asia to islands of oceania. The fact that in an ancient era on the territory Mesopotamia existed cultures of various types, both similar and and unlike one another, 100% means that they lived here various groups of nationalities. Much says for the Sumerians came to Mesopotamia from the south, from the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that most of the oldest known to us cities has non-Sumerian names. And since these cities arose in ancient times, the conclusion suggests itself that non-Sumerian names are pre-Sumerian names. Evidence that the Sumerians came from the mountains, is their way of building temples that built on artificial embankments or on brick or clay blocks on terraced hills. Such a custom could hardly occur among the inhabitants of the plains. Having studied a large number of pottery researcher J. Oats has established the commonality of a number decorative motifs, etc., thereby proving continuity cultures from the era of Tell el Obeid. No less convincing evidence should be considered common to individual cultures, starting from the culture of Tell el Obeid, especially religious buildings (the central courtyard of the sanctuary, surrounded by auxiliary premises; free standing sacrificial table; cult objects buried near the altar; decorations on the facades of temples). The temple, excavated in the VI layer of Eredou, differs little from the temple of the era Uruk, built several centuries later. He stood on a platform under which at least five rectangular structures forming the steps of the same platform. Erecting a new the temple, the inhabitants of Ereda not only used the ruins of the old, but also raised the level of the platform so that the walls of the old temple were within the new structure. It makes you think about the existence of strong religious beliefs and that subsequent generations sought to save from destruction and preserve earlier cult buildings. El Obeid culture has other similarities with cultures that are considered prehistoric, Sumerian. These are ritual vessels, sacrificing fish to the gods, terracotta censers using a snake symbol. Archaeological material found during excavations in the temples of Eredou and Lagash (and according to the latest data, in other city-states), testifies that the inhabitants of Mesopotamia sacrificed God Enki is not grain or meat, which would be natural for farmers and pastoralists, and fish! Here is the Royal List: “After the kingdom descended from heaven, Eredu became a place kingdom. “Recorded a few centuries later, the myth tells that here was the palace of the god Enki, erected at the bottom of the ocean. No god except Enki had access there. In the pristine the good city Enki built the city of Ered and lifted it over the surface of the waters so that it “shone like a high mountain.” Washed by fresh waters, this city was the property of God Enki, who guarded and its inhabitants. It was a holy city. Pilgrims continued to visit him after being in heaven the hierarchy has moved and the god Enki has faded into the background, losing the championship to his brother Enlil. Unusual fate fell on the share located near the Eredou El Obeid, where there was ancient temple and where, as archaeologists suggest, it was forbidden to be mere mortals. Apparently, only lived here priests obliged to take care of the temple and take to eternal rest noble people from Eredou, Ur and other cities. Excavated among the ruins of Uruk a small section of unpaved pavement limestone blocks is an ancient stone construction of Mesopotamia. Here, the oldest, if not the most ancient, artificial elevation, on which in Mesopotamia temples were built. The temple of God Ana, built from limestone blocks, archaeologists have called the “White Sanctuary.” The impressive dimensions (80×30 m), the perfection of the architectural form, vaulted niches framing the courtyard with a sacrificial table, four-sided walls, stairs leading to altar – all this made the temple a real miracle of architecture art even in the eyes of sophisticated archaeologists. Other Sumerian cities of that era in terms of material culture and architecture differed little from Uruk. In the center of each of them on artificial the platform towered a temple in honor of the patron god – the lord and Lord of the city, everywhere the same method of laying walls, the same niches and free-standing sacrificial table, etc. Identity of material culture, religious beliefs, socio-political the organization of various Sumerian city-states is not subject to doubt. Amazes and admires the pace of the cultural and economic development of sumer. How little time it took to instead Huge constructions appeared around the clay reed huts to lifeless, flooded during floods or, on the contrary, waterless and desert areas turned into blooming gardens, fields and meadows cut by a network of irrigation canals that also served for shipping. Curious that the attempted irrigation arid lands in Soviet Central Asia literally over fifty years led to global salinization of soils (not counting the already sharp lowering the level of the Aral Sea); at the same time in Mesopotamia system irrigation has been workable for millennia. Excavations in Egypt in layers that belong to the era of Nagal II, corresponding culture of Uruk IV, objects brought from Sumer were discovered luxury vessels with handles, pistils. In addition, here were found cylindrical seals uncharacteristic for this region. Draws on attention to the fact that on the ancient slate tiles the (legendary) ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt Menes there is a typical Sumerian motif dating back to the Uruk era, – Fantastic animals with long entwined necks.
Time Egypt Stones Fish Sumerians