The first of the seven wonders of the world – and the only one that survived until of our days! How many books and films are dedicated to the Great Pyramids – three buildings in the Valley of the Kings, how many assumptions and speculation piled around them, how many secrets and mysteries are attributed to them! Not the last of the mysteries – how did they manage to build them ?!
Cabinet historians – alas, the vast majority of historians it’s the “cabinet” ones – they have been surprised for 200 years and call for wonder its readers: how the ancient Egyptians managed:
a) carve such large stone blocks in quarries;
b) deliver them to the construction site;
c) raise them to a height of one hundred or more meters; finally,
d) with amazing accuracy to fit the lower edges of the blocks to uneven, wavy upper faces of the blocks of the previous row.
Numerous attempts to reconstruct these processes have given little. Reconstructors could only prove that many people having unlimited time and eating very well, they can drag a block weighing 2 tons from the quarry to the pyramid. But only! Already raising such a block at least to the second tier is still a problem, and After all, there are many tiers, and the monoliths in the body of the pyramids have weight and 10, and 20 tons each …
A photo from open sources
Proposed solution with cyclopean sand climbing stones the embankment can only cause a smile – it is estimated that its construction and subsequent cleaning by excavators do the construction unacceptably long, comparable to the reign of the whole dynasties. If you follow the logic of historical authorities, it turns out that the pharaohs ordered tombs almost great-great-grandchildren … But the most incomprehensible is the same fit.
The question is right away: if the ancient builders perfectly hewn 4 the side faces of the “cube” for pairing with neighboring ones, then who interfered with them do the same with the top and bottom? Why did they create for themselves huge, and indeed hardly feasible work on the exact fitting each other’s uneven surfaces? And then – like this looked technically? They worked the upper block, raised, tried on – not exactly! Removed, earned money … And how long will it take construction site? In general, historians cannot offer enough productive technology to build pyramids real forces and within an acceptable time FROM STONE BLOCKS.
A photo from open sources
Meanwhile, there is a simple technology that all these issues removes cleanly. Perhaps this will upset someone, but the “secret” of the pyramids already several years unraveled.
French chemist, professor of the University of Bern, Joseph Davidovich has been working in the field of artificial technology for many years. stone, being not only a scientist, but also a successful businessman, co-owner of a building materials company. Interested in the material from which the pyramids are made, he did what, actually, should have been done a long time ago, but researchers, mesmerized by the authority of historians, and in the head did not come.
He carried out a simple laboratory analysis of the pyramidal sample stone “and … sent three more samples to three independent laboratories – for safety reasons. Naturally, as befits the present to the scientist, without indicating in the “escort” what kind of substance and where from.
The answer came quickly and fully confirmed the result of the analysis. Davidovich himself: CONCRETE! Handicraft, low quality, but it’s concrete.
There were no “blocks” incomprehensible than those carved into quarries. Soft limestone that is underfoot in the Nile Valley literally everywhere, right at the construction site, they crushed hammers into rubble, and then ground with stone millstones into dust just like the mill grinds the grain into flour. Dozens of such millstones and today you can see, for example, in the same Egypt in the area Gebeyt old gold mine (Sinai Peninsula). Them gold ore was crushed into dust (and gold-bearing quartz, between by the way, not as an example harder than limestone!) for subsequent washing. Only for some reason they are not interested in historians.
Today, the resulting cement is dried in special inclined furnaces at very high temperatures; while not only driving away hydrated moisture, but the chemical composition of the substance also changes, therefore, today’s concrete is stronger than granite. Pyramid builders they didn’t have such furnaces, therefore they had concrete quite soft, but they had to build not bridges from it, so that they were quite satisfied with the poor cement dried on the sun.
The further process also did not require any ingenious devices – shovels, bags and cars, tubs with water and, of course, workers, it doesn’t matter, slaves or civilian employees. This whole a simple arsenal and today you can see on any construction site. The prepared solution is poured into a wooden formwork box, which after the solidification of the monolith is disassembled, transferred to the next position – and the process is repeated “until the end”.
This is where the key to the “surprisingly accurate fit” lies. uneven surfaces. “It is understood that the upper face of the hardened the monolith was uneven. Today for leveling the surface special vibrators are used; such a device connects to the formwork and in a matter of seconds makes the surface smooth and strictly horizontal.
But the pharaoh’s concrete workers didn’t care much about the roughness of the blocks: either the next block or the lining will lie on top! When pouring on top of the lying block, the solution naturally completely reproduced the shape of the underlying surface without leaving a single click. Today historians reverently feel the joints: you think what amazing fit accuracy!
The final point in this unusual study was put by our compatriot, also professor, doctor of geological and mineralogical Sciences Igor Vladimirovich Davidenko, and set purely in Russian simple and elegant. He reasoned like this: the manufacture of concrete monoliths implies the use of formwork. We have all seen on hardened concrete surfaces are clear, down to individual fibers, prints of formwork boards. So if our assumptions about pyramid building technologies are correct, there should be such prints and on their monoliths! But why is there no mention of this anywhere?
In Egypt, Davidenko easily found the answer. On the lower tiers there really are no blocks of such traces. Periodically raging in desert storms carry with them millions of tons of sand which like emery, year after year grinds their surface. But the lift sand at the same time is small – no more than 10-15 m, and, rising along the edge pyramids at 50 m, prof. Davidenko found what he was looking for. Moreover the formwork prints were so crisp that the blocks seemed molded yesterday.
A photo from open sources
It is clearly seen from them that the ancient builders chased their formwork boxes from the inside with coarse mats or sackcloths to reduce water leakage and texture remains on the concrete surface fabrics with all seams and knots. Comments, as they say, superfluous.
With the permission of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities prof. Davidenko chopped off a corner of one of the blocks with characteristic traces of matter and, providing him with an official certificate of authenticity, he took him to Moscow, where the analysis once again confirmed what has already been obvious: concrete! Two questions naturally arise. First: why hasn’t anyone noticed this before? After all, concrete in appearance noticeably different from natural stone!
Not so simple. It is a modern building concrete. really can be distinguished from stone by eye. But the concrete is great many, and among them those that even an experienced geologist will not be able to distinguish from stone without laboratory analysis. It’s easy make sure by looking at a good building materials store. You will see there is a finishing stone for every taste: marble, serpentine, jasper – and that’s it these are varieties of artificial stone, i.e. concrete! Try distinguish from natural. The concrete of the pyramids is made of poor cement, not fired, so when hardened, he accurately reproduced texture of what it is made of – limestone.
The second question. If everything is now so clear and understandable why the surprising discovery of two professors is muffled silently historical the science?
A photo from open sources
Alas, corporate arrogance and snobbery are trademarks “professionals from history.” Examples of outrage historians to natural scientists, to practical engineers – not numbers, and changes for the better ahead of something is not visible.
Unlike representatives of the natural sciences, for whom revision of old theories in relation to new data is a must-have process historians hold on to dead ossified picture of the development of civilization, in general terms worded, to put it mildly, not too knowledgeable scribal scribes 500 years ago!
Perhaps this article will upset someone, and even cause someone irritation. It `s naturally; always a little annoying to part with a mystery, a mystery, but a fairy tale, finally. But what can you do – the principle Nobody has yet canceled Occam, but he says, in a first approximation, that the most consistent solution to the problem is the right one! “
Water Time Egypt Stones Pyramids Pharaohs