The fake and genuine riddles of China

Fake and genuine riddles of ChinaA photo from open sources

China boasts the longest continuous line civilization development in the world. The competition in this is only India, however, the disparate possessions of the Hindustan Peninsula merged into one state recently, and China united in the III century BC. e. and since then has hardly been disconnected.

And yet the vast Celestial Empire, spread out from Tibet, Tien Shan and the Takla Makan Desert to the Pacific coast and seeming so ethnically monolithic from the outside, has never been the territory of residence of only one nationality – Han, slender in rows who deduced their genealogy from Sinanthropus to Mao Tse-tung. Someone in China built the pyramids. Others for some reason wore Scottish kilts (skirts). Still others claimed the title of midgets and at the same time considered themselves descendants of aliens from heaven. Fourth modeled The universe with mercury. All these strange things are united by one: they were never in sight, gaining fame in many ways only by chance. Does China hide its ancient treasures – voluntarily or involuntarily? Let’s try to figure it out. Flying over Xianyu

As befits any self-respecting ancient civilization, Chinese (or rather, those that existed on territory of the current PRC) gave rise to gigantic stone structures. AND it’s not only about the Great Wall, visible from space, but also about such seemingly purely Egyptian or Mexican buildings like the pyramids. It is now in the service of the lover of the mysteries of the Earth. the eye of google maps, and when the American pilot of the Second World War James Gaussman, flying from India to China, saw from above what he later called the Great White Pyramid, he was shocked and intrigued – especially since at the top of the building he something shining with a precious fire.

It happened near the ancient capital city of Xi’an, most glorified by the Terracotta Guard of the first the unifying emperor of the country Qin Shihuang (reign 259-220 BC e.) and its own grave hill, also ranked as Chinese the pyramids. At one time I had to stand on top of this hill, and now it does not look pyramidal at all. Inside, by legend, there is a model of the then universe, with seas and rivers, made of non-volatile mercury, all honestly described Chinese “father of history” Sima Qian in the famous work “Shi Ji” (“Historical notes”). Not so long ago, archaeologists launched in tomb probes confirming the presence of mercury in the pyramid, so ancient legends did not lie.

Of course, there is nothing strange in the fact that in ancient China similar structures existed (see “How the Pyramids were Built” on p. 25), however the hype raised around them and the halo surrounding them secrets always made them especially attractive to journalists, writers and travelers, thereby complicating the work of scientists.

Under the yoke of the pyramids

Due to the fact that China is essentially closed to outside interference any finds, especially accidental ones, mined during random flying or espionage expeditions anywhere in Tibet immediately acquire the status of sensation. The fact that the Chinese pyramidal tombs became the property of science very late, – the result relatively late development of Chinese archeology: its simply not existed until about the middle of the last century. Despite the fact that archaeological sites in China, according to conservative estimates, about 400 thousand, and 770 of them are protected by the state, imagine the “untoward” of this field. So, as if modern science was skeptical of amateur archaeologists with their barbaric methods, but it was they who came with Napoleon in Egypt, or following Schliemann to Turkey, opened antiquity to the West of these civilizations. And here is China (in particular, Shaanxi province, where most pyramids are located) is still mostly closed to external study and therefore generates a huge amount of speculation, so you always have to share fascinating cases detection of obscure objects and their systematic study.

Pyramids of China – the first shots from the plane Photos from open sources

As a result, almost a century intriguing mystery hunters The White Pyramid suddenly turns out to be a freely visited museum Maolin — the mausoleum of the emperor U-di (reign of 141–87 BC) Han Dynasty. In Shaanxi alone there are 38 counted pyramids – in them relatives and close emperors lie, and they built tombstones the hills rulers of the Han, Tang, Song, Western Xia dynasties and of course representatives of earlier cultures in China. But how Did the white pyramid become a museum building? Just like the country Katai described by Marco Polo later turned out to be China. Pilot I didn’t know what his plane flew over, but what sparkled under the sun at the top of the pyramid was only a fragment of its lining. When did reforms come to China that brought with them more than when James Gaussman, openness to the outside world (and as a consequence – and tourism), it seemed that since the end of the war, archaeologists and museum authorities have opened the tomb to visit, even not suspecting that she managed to be a great hidden secret Middle empire.

Museum White Pyramid in its modern form Photos from open sources

Unlike the pyramids of Giza (sometimes in the arrangement of Chinese pyramids see the same pattern as in Egypt), Chinese turned into a tourist attraction relatively recently, and far from all. Many still stand among arable or flood fields, many are planted with trees. IN whether camouflage purposes, or because land hunger in the Middle Kingdom it remains just as cruel, it’s hard to say: in jest about the fact that in China even plowed the gaps between the sleepers, reflected the harsh reality.

HOW THE Pyramids were built

Imagine you need to put something in the ground, say, tomb of the king. The more solemn burial, the more important the face was deceased in life, the more space he would need for placement of funeral utensils, sometimes – wives, concubines, attendants, horses, warriors and furnishings. The more comfortable you want to furnish a posthumous abode of his ruler, the more land will have to be extracted outside. By placing the deceased and his entire household in the burial chamber, you, most likely, you do not just level the surface above it, but use the resulting earth to pour spectacular on top commemorative mound.

Bulk material is naturally distributed on the surface in the shape of the cone, and such are the increasingly simple mounds – for example, steppe, Scythian * If civilization advances further, the mound is likely to be shaped, that is, straightened cone to the pyramid. The options are different: the top can be made flat (such are the Chinese pyramids or the pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico), add one more “step” from above, then another and another. So we get, say, the famous Joser pyramid in Egypt, Mesoamerica stepped pyramids or Babylonian ziggurats famous of which was the ziggurat of Etemenanka, better known as The Tower of Babel, or … a pyramid in China. Experience shows Egypt, step pyramids, simpler in construction, in ideally give way to smooth, requiring more advanced technology.

Tibetan aliens

Another once-fried sensation of Chinese archeology – “space disks” made of jasper (another name for this stone is jade), found in tibet. In 1978, someone David Agamon published the book “Solar Gods in Exile”, citing notes of his recently departed oxford boss professor caryl Robin-Evans, who spoke about the 1947 expedition to Tibet, where he traveled through the mountains of Bayan Khar and came across a mysterious people under the name of the drop (or boor). He allegedly came from aliens, wrecked on Earth, as evidenced by photographs of these tiny people, their “king” and “queen” and sacred stone disks with images of planets and extraterrestrial messages.

It turned out that a certain alien spaceship named drop (or dzopa) 12 thousand years ago crashed in Tibetan highlands. Local inhabitants with the unexpectedly biblical name “boor” they didn’t repair the aliens, and they didn’t have to do anything adapted to life on Earth and married some boorish women. Meanwhile, short boors, dissatisfied with such a turn events, they killed most of the aliens and buried them in caves, where at the feet of the skeletons the alleged disks were allegedly discovered. Stones really looked intriguing: planets, orbits and hieroglyphs interspersed in them, narrating about the stellar homeland of the drop tribe. However, the sensation, still not completely discounted by ufologists, by itself it came to naught 17 years after the release Solar Gods: Briton David Gamon Admitted Writing a Book under the pseudonym Aga-mon, envious of the worldwide fame of creations Erich von Daniken about the ancient astronauts – “Return to the Stars” and the “Gold of the Gods.” A source for fantasy was an article in 1960. years in the Western magazine “Russian Digest” and … French popular science novel “Behem-Kara Disks” by Daniel Pierre; professors Caryl Robin-Evans Gamon, of course, also invented.

A photo from open sources

Discs with holes

But the most interesting thing is that drives as such are not fiction. IN Neolithic China jasper discs were commonplace, and archaeologists they are well known. The earliest belong to the culture Lanzhou (3400-2250 BC), the latter belong to the dynasty the period of Shan, Zhou and Han, and grind them out of glass. Bi is flat jasper disk with a round hole in the middle, in the Stone Age them they didn’t decorate it at all, but, let’s say, during the Zhou period (1046–256 BC AD) – ornamented with a pattern of octagonal notches. Meaning the decor is really cosmological: the disk noted the presence four directions in space, bestowed upon the owner of favor heaven etc. High quality artifacts attests to their exceptional value and, accordingly, an outstanding social owner status (discs were really put in burials). Bi symbolized heaven, while ritual objects existed for the earth – tsun – also jasper hollow cylinders ornamented recesses. Everything develops: historians know that the cosmological concept of bi and tsun was preserved in ancient China for a long time: “covering the sky”, gaityan (his model is like bi) rotated around the central axis of the world (its model is tsun), hence the need for holes in the disk and its general similarity with iconography of a flying saucer. “Lids” (bi) and “vessels” (tsun) used by the then shamans – key figures of the culture of Liangzhu and keepers of real cosmological representations of the ancients. In the era Zhou the head of the conquered possessions handed over to the winner his disc in sign of submission, and when the ruler was buried, disks were placed in tomb on the chest or stomach of the deceased, as if connecting it with heaven.

Lolladoff plate

A photo from open sources

Neolithic is a non-written culture and cannot stand up for itself. The only drop disc with hieroglyphic inscriptions called in literature by the name of the next professor (this time – Polish: Lolladoff plate – Loladof’s plate), which was allegedly found in Nepal and purchased in India, wanders from one ufological publication in another one. But this is a vulgar duck of the same Gamon, who admitted that drop was the best rally in his life.

A photo from open sources

Chinese Jade Disc Bi

A photo from open sources

Disc jade from bi. Henan Province. China. When burying bi placed under the back of the deceased

A photo from open sources

But for the Chinese, the symbolism of jasper disks is so important that even the flip sides of the 2008 olympic medals were copied from bi. And no aliens!

Singing mummies from the Takla Makan desert

In many ancient cultures, it was believed that the body the deceased must be saved, because it can be useful to him in life behind the coffin. The most famous example is Egyptian art. mummification to which we must say thanks for the opportunity explore, say, the genetic material of Tutankhamun. But sometimes nature itself takes on the functions of man and makes historians gifts. For example, in the 80s of the last century, Chinese archaeologists, exploring the southern section of the Tarim River Basin – vast inhospitable desert region, on the outer edge of which once passed the Great Silk Road, found burial places with bodies people dead 3,5-4 millennia ago. Mummified Remains were found in the driest and most saline part of Central Asia – in the Takla Makan Desert of Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China), in the area of ​​cities Cher-Chen and Loulan.

A man rests in the pose of a man asleep in a hammock, therefore – taking into account the safety of the body – museum visitors involuntarily talk in a whisper, as if afraid to wake the sleeping man

A photo from open sources

The safety of the found remains exceeds the state even Egyptian mummies – and all thanks to exceptionally dry air region and the fact that the graves were dug in salt soil, accelerating the process of drying tissues and killing microorganisms. So that mummification occurred 4 thousand years ago completely by accident way. The bodies buried in the desert in winter froze and dried before they began to decompose. Put them in coffins without bottom, and free air circulation contributed to the complete drying the remains. Bodies interred in the hot season turned into skeletons.

The oldest mummies from Cherchen are about three thousand years old, and the elders from Loulani – about four. The dead were dressed in bright outfits, which have not collapsed or faded over the past millennia. The finds were placed in the Provincial Museum of Urumqi, where they reunited with several more mummies found in this region. However, only in 1994, together with the publication in the journal Discovery articles and photographs of the mummy of Urumqi became known to the scientific to the world.

Across Eurasia in Scotland and Phrygian cap

What is special about Cherchen mummies? First of all, they are all Caucasoids not less than 180 cm tall, it is not known how they ended up in these places. This is a “cherchen man”, three women and lying on a white sheep’s pillow a three-month-old baby wrapped in fine brown matter and tied with red and blue cords. The child was buried with a bottle of cow horn and probably with the oldest in the history of the pacifier made of sheep udder; the child’s eyes are blue stones. Man’s jaw neat tied up, so it looks quite normal, garter on the same women’s heads were weakened, and their faces became “singers” or screaming. A man rests in the pose of a man asleep in a hammock, therefore – taking into account the safety of the body – museum visitors involuntarily they talk in a whisper, as if afraid to wake the sleeping man.

A photo from open sources

A photo from open sources

A well-preserved gown woven with a braid harness and bright painted stockings made of sheep yarn. On the left foot —- high leather dude. “Cherchen man” fair-faced. Slightly curly brown hair is braided in two braids descending on the shoulders – of two, and not from three, as the Chinese once had, strands. Light gray hair shows that the deceased was over 50. He was distinguished by an enviable – under two meters – large and uncharacteristic for Asians large, outstanding on the face with the nose. By the sum of external signs, the Cherchen man – Indo-European.

The body of a tall woman from the same burial place also did not decay. Her face retained traces of color cosmetics, in light brown braids two strands of other people’s hair were added to add splendor to the hairstyle, she flaunted in sheepskin clothes. Interesting that the man was buried with ten headgear, each of which is made in in its style, one of them is the exact prototype of the Phrygian cap.

A photo from open sources

Loulan mummies include the so-called Loulan mummies. beauty “and several other mummies, including an eight-year-old child wrapped in a piece of printed woolen cloth buttoned bone clasps. The woman’s face is so beautiful that the Uyghurs call her their “sleeping beauty”, although anthropologically she far from the Turkic (and, of course, Han) phenotype. Interestingly, in the burial, in a dense woven bag found wheat seeds, and on the deceased’s chest – a sieve for sifting grains. Loulan wool fabric is not as colorful as Cherchen, but according to the patterns and weaving pattern are no less impressive. These mummies worse preserved, but leave no doubt in racial kinship with “cherchentsami”. There is an important difference: matter, from which made clothes on these mummies, by color and ornament resembles a checkered Celtic plaid. It is very likely that all these people during their lifetime could speak the Indo-European language families.

Who are these migrants? Where did you come from? Where did their checkered clothes and numerous hats? Unlike the White Pyramid and bi disks, it still really remains a mystery. And her chances guess a little with the available data. Is that China will not throw anything – from the bins of its registered 400 thousand archaeological monuments and an unknown number of yet undetected, waiting a chance to present new puzzles to historians, simultaneously revealing old ones.

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