This mysterious people

This mysterious peoplePhoto from open sources

In 2012, the reptile, the whole world was waiting for the end of the world “according to the Mayan calendar.” The fateful year passed, but the end of the world did not happen. Mayan Prophecy turned out to be a myth – the most popular in a series of misconceptions about the ancient Native American people. But there are others … Maya disappeared long before to Europeans Classical Mayan centers such as Tikal, Kopan, Palenque was indeed abandoned in the 10th century, but in the north, on the Yucatan Peninsula, their culture has existed for a long time. Yes and other areas of the Mayans were also far from deserted. So maya still managed to fight the invaders from overseas. And first with them met … Christopher Columbus himself! In the 40s of XV! century Yucatan was conquered, in 1697 the last independent state fell – Tayyasal, and they forgot about Maya. So the second myth was born. America from time immemorial inhabited by savages of highly developed native civilizations in the New World, they say, no, there was not and cannot be. IN In 1832, the ruins of Palenque were examined by Jean Frederic de Waldeck. Returning to Paris, he published a book about the Mayan antiquities. She enjoyed success with artists, but went unnoticed archaeologists. Waldeck was a romantic, not a scientist – he believed that the builders of the Indian cities were the Atlanteans or the Egyptians, and appropriately “corrected” the drawings. Therefore, despite non-artistic virtues, they do not represent scientific value. Then an American diplomat set off in search of ancient cities. John Lloyd Stephens and English artist Frederick Casherwood. The expedition lasted from 1839 to 1841. In 1842 in New York Stephens’ book Travel Impressions of a Trip to Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, and two years later it workmate Caserwood released his own work. Stephens report was detailed and detailed, and masterfully executed drawings of Caservwood with accuracy exceeded the photograph, reproduced monuments ancient cities. They have not lost their documentary significance and now: after all, much that was then captured was captured in subsequent years Overgrown or collapsed. The world was confronted with the fact: in America, the “land of savages,” found traces of a powerful ancient civilization. A little later, the Frenchman Charles Etienne Brasser de Bourbur found the Mayan surviving manuscripts in the archives: part of the Madrid Code, Maya-Quiche epic “Popol-Vuh”, recorded the only surviving to of our days, the Mayan play Rabimal-Achi. However, scientists have not They believed that the Indians built the cities in Selva. Maya Cities not Maya built In the XVI century. “protector of the Indians” Bartolome de Las Casas hypothesized that Indians are the descendants of the missing “ten tribes of Israel” who moved to the New World. In XIX in. the idea was developed by Mormons. In their opinion, the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl (he is Mayan Kukulkan) – this is Jesus Christ. Another hypothesis about the origin of Maya – “Atlantic”, it was first expressed back in XV! century. When the ruins of the Mayan cities were discovered in the 19th century, Atlantis was remembered again, and the sunken mainland was proclaimed a common the cultural center of the Old and New Worlds, the “boiler” of all high civilizations of antiquity. The first “atlantologist” consider American Ignatius Donelly, who in 1882 published the book Atlantis – antediluvian world. “In Russia, his follower was NF Zhirov. Version Maya is of relatively late Egyptian origin. Her first put forward Waldeck, one of the first “discoverers” of ancient cities. But did not forget the Atlanteans. Civilization in the Nile Valley brought New World colonists trained … natives of Atlantis – believed the Frenchman O. Le Plongeon. And the Englishman E. Smith put forward “geolithic” theory, according to which all high cultures come from egypt. Norwegian traveler Tour Heyerdahl in 1969-1970 crossed the Atlantic on the papyrus boat Ra. His managed to demonstrate – Egyptian voyages to America technically are possible. But were they really implemented? Theory refutes the time factor. The heyday of ancient Egypt – III Millennium BC, Maya civilization – the boundary of our era. In new The Greeks also sent light – from Odysseus to the soldiers of Alexander Macedonian – Phoenicians, Asians, Africans, Romans … The latter, by the way, did visit Mexico – during excavations discovered several ancient Roman gizmos. However, it is unlikely that sailors from Rome got there of their own free will, and it is doubly doubtful that they were ancient maya teachers. Similar cultural traits on both sides oceans are present, but they are not caused by pre-Columbian ties, but general laws of the development of civilization. Research, meanwhile, went on. Excavation data showed – ancient cities built Maya themselves. But as they were called in reality (widely famous names – conditional)? Who was managed? Why residents left them? One could only guess about it … Abandoned cities One of the authors of this myth was the Mayan Silvanus Morley, and popularized by Kurt Walter Keram. He draws an epic relocation picture: “An entire nation, consisting mainly of residents cities, suddenly left his solid and strong houses, said goodbye to streets, squares, temples and palaces and moved to the distant wild north. None of these settlers ever returned to the old place. To visualize the monstrous and completely incomprehensible nature of this incident, imagine, for example, that the French people … suddenly would have unexpectedly moved to Morocco. Having hardly arrived at place, would set about building what they just left to the mercy of fate – temples and cities. “Mayan cities classical epochs really perished – however, not all at once and not all at once. Agony took about a century. The cause of the disaster was called: exhaustion lands, epidemics, famine, foreign invasion, rebellion … This the issue has not been resolved so far. Classless society at that time how some mourned the untimely destruction of cities, while others claimed Maya … they weren’t. The ruins discovered by archaeologists – the ritual centers where the priests lived, and the people came only for rituals. If there are no cities, there are no traders or artisans, no warriors, no kings! Only priests and peasants. Some went even further, claiming that the priestly posts were elected, occupied only for a short period, having served that, “popular the chosen ones “returned to work on earth. Similar views (though not so radical) adhered to the famous Mayan Eric Thompson. Obsession with time Thompson and his followers attributed the Mayan peculiar “philosophy of time and claimed that steles and altars were erected only to indicate him move. Thompson believed: no text praises the ruler either conquest – their content only marks philosophical ideas. Like the view was caused by the fact that for a hundred years of all Mayan characters only the calendar characters were decrypted. One of The decryptor was Eric Thompson himself. Desperate to understand the texts, he proclaimed that they have nothing but dates. More scientists studied Maya, the more questions arose, false interpretations and hypotheses. The surviving codes, inscriptions on steles and household items could answer many questions – but they were silent. Who decoded Mayan hieroglyphs? The first decryption attempts were taken after labor was discovered on Yucatan “brother Diego de Landa. Landa cited in manuscripts so called the “alphabet” – 27 Mayan characters, which, in his opinion, correspond to the Spanish letters, He provided the “alphabet” with examples, however, they did not help the researchers, but, on the contrary, confused them. The word of the two letters “le” (“snare”) was recorded in four hieroglyphs, and the word “cha” (“water”) – three. Above the “Landa alphabet” beat several generations of decoders. Yuri Valentinovich Knorozov understood – between the scribe Maya and the monk happened misunderstanding. Landa, dictating, called each letter by name, and then – the whole word. Just in case, the Indian recorded everything he said. The result was nonsense, which knocked off sense. After reading the examples “by the method of Landa”, the scientist was convinced that the conjecture is correct. Knorozov proved that the signs of the “alphabet” do not convey letters, and their names – vowels and syllables, and substantiated the general Mayan decoding principles. His work served as the basis for further research. However, so that the characters “speak it took decades. So it’s more correct to say that Knorozov did not “decipher”, but determined approaches, laid the foundations decryption. Currently, more than two-thirds are decoded hieroglyphs. The course of historical events is being restored, names are returned to cities, established beliefs collapse. Enlightened Theocracy proved to be as utopian as “classless society”, ruled by priests elected from peasants. The priestly estate … did not exist or played a minor role, and the king’s power was hereditary. It turned out to be a myth Maya’s peacefulness, their obsession with the passage of time, and otherworldly. Stone Chronicles Preserves Victory Information campaigns, coups, struggles and alliances with foreigners. Mayan ceased to be “mysterious”, “unique”, “unknowable” by the people. A part of the myths generated by lack information. Some remained – popularization of scientific achievements lagging behind discoveries for decades. Turned out to be a tenacious myth about atlantes and other overseas “professors” about abandoned cities, part of others related to the “unknowable” and “mystical.” These myths loved by reporters. But rewrite the same thing over and over boring. Myths needed fresher. I did not have to wait long. There are … Crystal skulls The most famous skull – “Mitchell-Hedges,” or the Skull of Doom. They say him in 1927 discovered the daughter of an archaeologist F.A. Mitchell-Hedges Anna during excavation Mayan cities of Lubaantuna. The skull was made of solid crystal crystal, the lower jaw was attached separately, the eye sockets glowed and reflected rays of light thanks to a system of channels and prisms in the back parts. In 1964, Anna transferred the artifact to art critic Frank Dorland, who transferred it to the Hewlett-Packard firm for study, but experts did not understand how it was made. When and for what – also dont clear. It is believed that the skull could serve to accumulate and transmit information, could be a tool for fortune telling, a kind of magnifying glass, be used for medicinal purposes and even fulfill wishes. There is also a “technical” hypothesis – a prism carved in the back parts of the artifact, reminds some … laser working fluid devices! Other crystal skulls were also found. In the 19th century Paris appeared and the skull from the British Museum, many crystal artifacts appeared in the vague nineties recently discovered “Himmler’s skull.” At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries, crystal skulls have become fashionable. Many publications have been devoted to them, and in 2008 “Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of Crystal” skulls. “In fact, the skulls are fake. The skull of Fate was not found excavated, and acquired by Mitchell-Hedges at auction. Early skulls – the fruit of the activities of the French adventurer Eugene Boban. Ominous artifacts corresponded to the European concept of Indians with their bloody rites and “mystical rituals” than and scammers took advantage. Cosmonaut Pakal In 1952 Mexican archaeologist Alberto Rus discovered in the pyramid of the Temple Lettering tomb with sarcophagus. The deceased was unusually large -173 cm for Indians. Soon a version appeared that this is – European who crossed the Atlantic long before Columbus and became deified ruler Palenque. In 1968, a science fiction writer Alexander Kazantsev put forward a more extravagant hypothesis. By his opinion, Palenque is buried … an alien. Relief on the lid The sarcophagus depicts an astronaut piloting a spaceship. The funeral mask and sculptures found in the crypt were captured people of strange appearance – with a nose bridge above the eyebrows. This hypothesis glorified Swiss Erich von Daniken in the best-selling book “Memories of future. “Few have not read in childhood a description of an” alien from Palenque “- reprints from the book of von Daniken were placed in many editions. An image of the relief and drawing were attached to the cancellation “rockets” with explanatory inscriptions. At first sight, the evidence was convincing. However … science fiction is slightly “tweaked” the picture: smeared some parts that are not related connected by a solid line, and to give the “astronaut” more natural pose, placed the entire image in the wrong, transverse position, while you need to look at the stove longitudinally. About who buried in a sarcophagus, they could tell the inscriptions on it, but with them reading scientists made mistakes. American Mayanists David Kelly and Merle Green Robertson said the deceased is an 80-year-old named Pacal (Shield), which ruled Palenque from 615 to 683 A.D. married a twelve-year-old teenager: first – to his mother, then – to sister, was a dwarf and as a result of incestuous marriages suffered from leg deformity. Self-made inscription Alberto Rusom turned out to be just as inaccurate, Hieroglyphic texts Palenka managed to read only at the turn of the XX – XXI centuries. It turned out, that the Mayan ruler is not buried in the Temple of Inscriptions. His really called Pacal, but at 12 he did not marry his mother, but was erected by her on the throne. Sarcophagus inscription – list of ancestors the king. Pa-kal’s biography was restored on the basis of others texts. Pa-kal’s sarcophagus was called “Stone Ark of God Corn “, and the temple itself – Bolon Yet Naah -” Hall of Nine Accomplishments. ” Concluding the story of Mayan myths, one cannot but mention the most important is the myth of the end of the world. It’s clear that this is a commercial project. However, does it have a historical, scientific basis? According to the famous American Mayan Michael Co, for the religions of the peoples Mesoamericans, including Mayans, are characterized by repeating cycles of creation and destruction. Each length was 13 Buck-tuns — a little less than 5,200 years old — and Armageddon was supposed to come on the last day of the thirteenth baktun when according to the “long count” calendar, the next great cycle will end. There is a “prophecy” left by the Mayans themselves. In 1996 Mayan writing specialist David Stewart with his colleague Stephen Houston discovered a stela with an inscription from the fortress Tortuguero. After decryption it turned out: “The thirteenth will end four hundredth anniversary of the day of 4 Ahab on the 3rd day of the month of Kankin. In that day Bolon Yokte, the god of change, will descend on (from / from?) Black? and will do ?? “This unintelligible text is the famous prophecy about end of the world. However, its translation is inaccurate, as part of the characters is damaged. Moreover, it is part of another, larger inscription about consecration of the building. About “prophecy” and “doomsday” we became not known from scientific works, but from esoteric books such as The Mayan Factor by Jose Arguelles, The Mayan Cosmogenesis: 2012 by John Jenkins and others. Fantastic thrillers later appeared, and also disaster films. In a modern myth, ideas are mixed Mayans and Aztecs. The Aztecs really had legends about apocalypse. According to their beliefs, we live in the Fifth Age, which, like the four before, it should end in disaster. But exact dates they did not call. Maya had the so-called Long Count. The starting day of the cycle is August 6/11/12, 3113/14 BC, the end – December 21/23, 2012. However, the Mayans did not wait for the “end of the world”, so as in 4772 they were going to celebrate the anniversary of the coronation of King Pakal. Author: T.Plikhnevich Source: “Interesting newspaper. The world of the unknown” No. 12 2013

Atlantis Time Ancient artifacts Egypt End of the world Russia Sarcophagi Artists Mayan Civilization

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