Man – that sounds proud. But, you see, he looks it’s often unimportant: it doesn’t sparkle with mind and talent, it is sick, smokes, drinks, steals and generally constantly sins. Imperfect human nature, alas. How to improve it? Of course, with the help of eugenics! So a hundred years ago thousands of brilliant scientists from different countries thought. A those in power, listening to their research, accepted inhuman laws – such that they are still ashamed of them. Eugenics – a specific teaching, at the intersection of science, ethics and religion – promised to quickly solve two global problems: that children were born healthy, talented and smart and not to appear inferior, sick, who will later become alcoholics, шизофрениками, серийными преступниками… Photo from open sources
The father of eugenics, he is the cousin of Charles Darwin, is an outstanding anthropologist and psychologist Francis Galton – in 1883 wrote epoch-making work “Study of human abilities and their development. “Galton argued: the difference between people is happening not at all due to social conditions and small efforts to achieve their goals. No, intellectual abilities are inherited in the same way like physical ones, and the “quality” of a child depends directly on the father and mothers. If you select pairs systemically, you can turn high intelligence from random quality to constant. Galton agreed with Darwin’s idea that natural selection supports survival kind of. But humanity is the only biological on Earth a species that, due to the development of civilization, is evading this. A it is a direct road to degeneration. Urgent need to replenish absent in the cultural environment natural selection by artificial by: “what nature does blindly, slowly and cruelly, follows do fast, shrewdly and gently. ”
Spartan children. Слабым жить не позволено Фото изopen sources
Darwin himself favored eugenic theory. “Human examines the pedigree of his horses with scrupulous thoroughness, cattle and dogs before joining pairs, he wrote. – but when it comes to his own marriage, he rarely or never cares about something like that. “Utopian Model Ideas the eugenics that Galton set forth are not new at all. More in Sparta frail infants by decision of the ephors – the highest advisers – dumped into the abyss. After all, the Spartans needed invincible warriors, not sick “white-ticketers”!
National Socialist Poster Illustrating Consequences браков с “неполноценными” людьми” Фото изopen sources
In the IV century BC Plato wrote in the “State”: stimulate fertility from healthy, smart and beautiful and to limit her from those who are sick. The great philosopher called fellow citizens: children with defects or from inferior father and mother medical assistance must be denied, and “moral degenerates” – and to execute at all. An ideal society should foster temporary alliances selected men and women – so that they leave high-quality progeny. In ancient Rome – the same thing. We quote Seneca: “We we destroy the ugly offspring and drown the weak and abnormal newborns. “And here’s another stubborn eugenics – Tommaso Campanella, a medieval Utopian socialist. He assured: “Reproduction is the responsibility of the state, not of individual persons. The new state must choose its parents, taking into account their physical data and temperament to avoid the appearance of ugly and weak children … “By the way, the first Russian eugenist was Peter the Great. According to one of his decrees, “fools what kind of science and service are not suitable, “it was forbidden to marry, since there is nothing to expect from them “a good heritage and state good. “And the famous dwarf wedding is an eugenic experiment Petra, who reflected his desire to experiment with heredity. There is always a place for death in life. Ideas Galton quickly captured the minds of everything progressive at that time of humanity. Already at the beginning of the century in America in 12 states was forced sterilization is legally registered defective. “Dr. Sharp, the operation, eugenics fanatic, noted that after them interest in the opposite sex did not decreases. Sweden distinguished itself, where the Institute was established in 1918 experimental biology and the study of heredity in Lund, and four years later – State Institute of Racial Biology in Uppsala. Admittedly, the Swedes were very humane. Sterilization recognized as desirable, but exclusively voluntary. Operation offered to do to those whom doctors and lawyers thought mentally or racially inferior. Then they added asocial individuals, dangerous criminals and people with unusual or excessive sexual desires. They curtailed the program only after World War II, and the last operation – you won’t believe it! – made in 1976 year. Similar programs were in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Switzerland. From 1890 to 1930, eugenics actively developed as in at least 30 countries. The scale of eugenic research – grandiose, popularity – huge. Behind the events of the International congress on eugenics, which took place in 1932 in New York, watched almost the same way as now for the world championships in football … In the USSR after the revolution, eugenics was also on a special position. “It is necessary to improve human nature, how to improve by artificial selection of domestic animals and plants, “- assured our brilliant biologist, author of several discoveries of the world scale Nikolai Konstantinovich Koltsov. In 1920, he founded Russian _ eugenic society, in which prominent biologists, physicians, chemists and psychiatrists – the same Bekhterev, between by the way. And in the “Russian Eugenic Journal”, which edited Koltsov, published dozens of studies on genealogies brilliant writers, philosophers, scientists, prominent Bolsheviks and representatives of the masses, whose outstanding abilities must certainly be passed on to offspring. Student Koltsova, Professor Alexander Sergeevich Serebrovsky demanded immediate “Bolshevization of science.” In 1929, he proposed the creation of the sperm bank of valuable producers — especially the leaders of the revolution — and launch a wide program of artificial insemination of workers women. According to the professor, one is talented and effective a producer can have a thousand children, so give birth from a loved one men are not necessary at all. But the new Soviet five-year plan superhuman will perform in two and a half years. A very soon most soviet people will have the same innate makings like Lenin, Newton, Leonardo da Vinci, Pasteur, Beethoven or Karl Marx … But already in the mid-1930s, Soviet power finally disbelieved in the promises of eugenics to create a new person. And colleagues called Academician Koltsov a fascist, Black Hundred, a supporter of livestock breeding, obscurantism and ignoramus. The patient needs care – from the doctor Germany went the farthest in promoting eugenics. July 14, 1934 of the year the law “On the prevention of hereditary birth sick offspring “. Special” tribunal courts were created health. “If they established the bad heredity of both parents, it was decided to sterilize them. For four years of this operation or euthanasia using poison gas more than a million people have been affected: Jews, gypsies, gays, alcoholics, mentally ill, political opposition, homeless people, criminals …
Фото изopen sources
At the same time, Himmler promotes the Lebensborn program (“Source of Life”): selection of healthy and educated Aryans to raise supermen capable of commanding the lower races and nations. Eugenic ideas organically merged with fascist ideology. Hitler wrote that the people’s state should set race interests in the center of public life and take care so that only healthy people produce offspring. Monstrous German experience sobered up even the most convinced eugenicists in other countries. And already in the late 1930s tried not to remember eugenics: the good intentions of scientists the road to real hell was paved. They recalled eugenics many years later, when the genetic boom began. Because now the possibilities for improving human nature are an order of magnitude more powerful. Only questions are much more than answers. What is better for nature: so that children are born as one smart, healthy and beautiful? Or we must not invade this reserved, divine region? The famous biologist Timofeev-Resovsky once said: “The pig farmer knows exactly what he wants from his pigs and in which direction he wants to improve his disgusting. It also knows the cattle breeder about his cattle. Please tell me who knows how to improve humanity and in what direction? There are no such people. Pigs cannot improve their breed. Every pig thinks that she is the best pig. The same is often observed within of mankind. “Mikhail BOLOTOVSKY