What Napoleon was looking for and maybe found in Egypt?

What did Napoleon seek and perhaps find in Egypt?A photo from open sources

At the end of the 18th century, France was covered by the shadow of a new national idol – Napoleon Bonaparte. A brilliant artillery officer in over a short period declared itself outstanding the commander who can solve the biggest tasks, the main one which was the defeat of the worst enemy of republican France – Britain. But instead of implementing this plan, Napoleon suddenly for something moved to conquer Egypt. What for? Why? Mystery egyptian Napoleon’s campaign is still hidden under the thickness of fiction, falsifications, or even direct deception … December 7, 1797 Napoleon Bonaparte triumphantly returned from the Italian campaign. It was the first full-fledged military campaign of the twenty-eight commander. His army brought gigantic booty to France, captured in rich Italian cities. The directory pretended that it’s extremely glad that a military leader of this scale appears, and actually frantically looking for an excuse to fuse him away with eye. For example, send to conquer England – a long-standing enemy France, which in every possible way poisoned her existence. But here Bonaparte himself offered her a plan for a new military campaign – the conquest Of Egypt! And the leadership of republican France happily seized on for this idea. More precisely, for the adventure: after all, soberly reasoning, start war with England from the conquest of Egypt is like flying to the moon through Mars. African mirages usually speaking of Napoleonic invasion of Egypt, lead several underlying reasons that upon closer examination are not stand up to criticism. The first reason: France did not have normal fleet to confront the mistress of the seas – Britain. So Bonaparte, after returning from Italy, went north France, where he carefully examined all the possibilities for attacking Britain. As a result, he concluded: the English fleet with easily break the French expedition, so attack England across the sea is nonsense of the purest water! Of course, with this you can would agree if a proposal followed Continue conquest using land routes: e.g. go to Spain, Austria or to the same Russia. But giving up from the plan of attack on Britain, Napoleon immediately offers something similar (in any case, again related to the sea and use fleet), only more difficult to implement – to put the army on ships and set off to conquer Egypt! Agree that the plan attacks on Britain through Ireland, where Bonaparte clearly supported would the local population, who hated the British, be much more pragmatic. Indeed, if sent to Egypt, it would certainly have to to meet the “warm welcome” of Horatio Nelson and his wards, who hosted not only the English Channel, but also in the Mediterranean Sea. In the end, Napoleon could require money to build new ships, as Peter the Great, who created, in unlike the French, the fleet is completely empty. Did not have of money? But they did find an expedition to Egypt. From here you can do only one conclusion: the expedition to Egypt promised Napoleon and France something much more than even an attack on England! Risk or payment? Another “serious” reason explaining the Egyptian Napoleon’s campaign, is that the cunning Corsican wanted disrupt the colonial trade of England and use Egypt in as an outpost for the conquest of India. But this is a bluff of pure water: Napoleon, of course, was an adventurer, but not to the same extent! For all its dreamy nature, the Corsican was quite sober-minded strategist. A man who possessed wonderful mathematical abilities, brilliant analyst, he couldn’t dreaming, imagining that the 32 thousandth army (to conquer Britain allocated him the 120 thousandth army), starting from Egypt, without all sorts of obstacles a victorious march will pass along the eastern sands, through the heat, plague and waterlessness, and hoist tri-color French flag in coveted Calcutta. So don’t sin on Bonaparte’s “adventurism”, in his megalomania – they say, man dreamed of becoming the second Alexander of Macedon, conquering the East, this Pandora’s box full of jewels, silks and spices! More knowing how the fiasco turned into an Egyptian campaign (army and fleet ceased to exist), it is completely incomprehensible how Napoleon managed to wrap things up so that this shameful page of his biography is considered one of the illustrations of his victories, a step triumphal climb? Photos from open sources No, Bonaparte perfectly gave himself account of the difficulty of what was ahead, because there is evidence Stendhal, who indicated: in 1796, the Directory commissioned Bonaparte consider an invasion plan for Egypt. He studied it and returned to the government with a conclusion: this is impossible! But two years passed, and the young commander suddenly decisively changed his position. Why? The answer is obvious: during this time he learned something that even blinded such a sober and pragmatic commander as Napoleon. Which the mirage made him forget about the difficulties of the sea route, about insufficiency of weapons, about the heat and decisive mood of the Egyptian Mamluks and the Turkish Sultan? There is no doubt that this secret should have been absolutely wonderful, superior in its own way all that has been known so far! And judging by the results, which Bonaparte ultimately reached, the goal of the campaign, despite its complete failure militarily and strategically, completely justified. Under the rustle of sand Napoleon was preparing for this campaign with great care. He didn’t just select for him separate parts, but watched every soldier. Having exceptional memory, Napoleon knew almost all of his soldiers, remembered the advantages and disadvantages of most of them. May 19, 1798 32 thousand soldiers plunged into 350 ships and sailed out Toulon to the south. Bonaparte conquered Malta along the way, and on June 30 French ships moored on the shore of Egypt. Command staff attracted by Napoleon, was amazing. Here were the best generals of the republic: Berthier, Dese, Kleben, Lannes, Murat, Sulkovsky, Lavalet. But the most interesting thing is that in addition to army parts of the French were accompanied by a “detachment” of scientists, consisting of specialists of various profiles. There were mathematicians and geographers, historians, and writers whose names were quite famous in Europe: e.g. illustrious Bertollet, chemist Conte, writer Arnault, Dolomie mineralogist, Medic Dégenet. At noon on July 1 at Abukir, located a few miles east of Alexandria, the French army landed. Commander made a review landed troops, after which the soldiers, hungry and not rested, moved towards Alexandria. Defensive city ​​constructions, dilapidated from old age, could not resist the assault. By the night of July 2, the city was taken. After that Bonaparte moved along the Nile to the south, towards Cairo. Population of the country were Fellahs (dependent peasants), Bedouin nomads and Mameluke warriors. Egypt was politically dependent Turkey, but the Sultan did not interfere in the internal affairs of this territory. However, the unscrupulous invasion of the French, who did not even bother declare officially the start of the war, pushed the Sultan to anti-French coalition. On July 21, 1798, Bonaparte met with the main forces of the Mamelukes. “Soldiers! Forty centuries look at you today from the heights of these pyramids! “said Napoleon, referring to his army before the start of the battle. The battle of the pyramids was won but then a series of setbacks followed – Nelson’s fleet destroyed the French fleet, and this could prevent the army from returning home. The Turkish sultan, learning about the landing of Napoleon, sent to Egypt troops through Syria. Napoleon, learning about this, moved towards them. The Syrian campaign was extremely difficult. Terrible heat, lack of water, the plague caused the army much more harm than the attack of the enemy soldier. In early March 1799, the French after a fierce battle took Jaffa, the brutalized soldiers of Bonaparte staged a massacre in the city. Himself the commander ordered the execution of a detachment of Albanians who surrendered in exchange for a promise to save their life. The French spent two months under the walls of Acre (Akka), and on May 20 they had to end the siege and move away. Despite Napoleon’s promise to convert to Islam, the local the population took the bayonets of the French. They attacked the stragglers soldiers and officers, poisoned wells with water, destroyed stocks food. That is, from the very beginning it was obvious that the official plans Campaigns are practically impossible. Sober commander how was Bonaparte, I would immediately understand that I was trapped, and would look for a way out from the situation (perhaps he would try to agree with the Turkish Sultan or Mamelukes), but in this situation the Corsican behaved completely incomprehensible, clearly intending to destroy the army. What was the reason for the apparent “inadequacy” of the commander? Undeclared goals In fact, Napoleon was not interested in establishing French protectorate over Egypt, no repetition of feats Alexander the Great, nor Egyptian nitrate needed for production of gunpowder, according to some historians, – Bonaparte came to Egypt for “secret knowledge”! It can be called a colossal array of knowledge accumulated over several millennia, created by the great Egyptian civilization. All that was known Egypt – astronomy, astrology, engineering, mechanics, in a word, the keys to the secrets of the universe – all this was stored in the sand pyramids and abandoned temples. Photos from open sources And Napoleon, this ingenious seer, the first of the great realized what benefits would be given to one who will take possession of these keys. Figuratively speaking, Bonaparte was thereby Jason, who led his Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece. But it was not a piece of sheep’s skin, even with golden rings, but something much more powerful and wonderful. No wonder outstanding French mathematician Monge, member of the expedition, as if in jest said: “So I turned into an argonaut!” Scientific part of the expedition was the core of this campaign. No wonder the officers immediately there gave the command: “Scientists and donkeys – in the middle!” That is, scientists cherished like the apple of an eye, covering them from random bullets, from Bedouin spears and sabers: after all, without them, the expedition lost any meaning. And the scientists didn’t let us down: this guard, consisting of 175 man, brilliantly coped with his task! While the main army fought in Egypt, then in Syria, the 5,000th detachment under the command of the pet of the Corsican – General Dese – passed in Upper Egypt to the island of Elephantine. There were ancient temples, which were examined and examined, and all the most valuable – exported immediately. According to some historians, on the islands of Elephantine and Filet located in the Nile Delta and there were hidden all the most valuable, on which was based the wealth of the Ancients Of Egypt. However, others believe that Bonaparte’s “scientific guard” discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun and carried out many buried under the thickness of time secrets. Looted Elephantine Photos from open sources Photos from open sources Have Egyptian mummies been shared with a warlike Corsican with his secrets? His incredible biography speaks for itself … The commander himself did not waste time. There are testimonies of the participants of the campaign, according to with which Napoleon personally explored the Cheops pyramid and even spent there almost three whole days! When he, pale and sad, was taken out from the stone labyrinths and asked: “What did you see?”, the great the commander whispered a little audibly: “You still won’t believe it!” A famous date with the mummy of Ramses II, alone with whom Corsican spent more than two hours! What was collected French scientists in Egypt cannot be overestimated – this load knowledge and secrets not only led to the emergence of many new scientific areas (e.g. Egyptology, which revolutionized history), but also to a turning point in the life of mankind. So your battle in the background Napoleon won the Egyptian pyramids, despite the fact that on August 23 In 1799, he, along with his immediate surroundings, plunged onto the ship and left for his homeland, leaving the army to the mercy of fate. But home the commander who ruined the army and navy returned for some reason a triumph. He was met as a winner and a hero, and through some time the loser who failed the military campaign committed an unprecedented take-off, becoming the first consul of France. Secret knowledge stolen from Egyptian civilization – that’s what became its true army leading from victory to victory. Dmitry KUPRIYANOV

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