So hundreds of millions of years ago the ancient mainland looked Oldred. 570-500 million years ago, the distribution of land on the surface The earth was different than at present. In the place of the North America and Greenland there was a mainland Lawrence. South of Lawrence extended to the Brazilian mainland. Open source photos The African mainland included Africa, Madagascar and Arabia. North of it was the Russian mainland, corresponding on the Russian platform within the borders – the Danube Delta, Dniester, Vistula, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Pechora River, Ufa, White, north of the Caspian Sea, Volga delta, north of the Black Sea. The center of the platform is the city of Vladimir between the rivers Oka and Volga. On the The Russian platform Cambrian deposits are distributed almost everywhere in its northern part, and also known in its western parts Belarus and Ukraine. To the east of the Russian mainland was located Siberian continent – Angarida, including the Siberian platform and adjacent mountain structures. In place of modern China was Chinese mainland, to the south of it is the Australian mainland, covering the territory of modern India and Western Australia. Ordovician period At the beginning of the Paleozoic (500-440 million years ago) in the Northern Hemisphere from ancient platforms – Russian, Siberian, Chinese and North American – formed a single mainland Laurasia. Hindustan (Madagascar island, Hindustan peninsula, south Himalayas), African (without Atlas Mountains), South American (to east of the Andes), the Antarctic platform, and also Arabia and Australia (west of the mountain ranges of its eastern part) entered southern mainland – Gondwana. Laurasia was separated from Gondwana by sea (geosynclinal) Tethys (Central Mediterranean, Mesogeus), passing in the Mesozoic era along the Alpine folding zone: in Europe – Alps, Pyrenees, Andalusian mountains, Apennines, Carpathians, Dinar mountains, Stara Planina, Crimean mountains, Caucasus mountains; in North Africa – the northern part of the Atlas Mountains; in Asia – Pontic mountains and Taurus, Turkmen-Khorasan mountains, Elbrus and Zagros, Suleiman mountains, Himalayas, folded chains of Burma, Indonesia, Kamchatka, Japanese and Philippine Islands; in North America – folded ridges of the Pacific coast of Alaska and California; in South America – Andes; archipelagos framing Australia from the east, including the islands of New Guinea and New Zealand. Territory, covered by alpine folding, retains high tectonic activity in the modern era, which is expressed in intensely dissected relief, high seismicity and ongoing in many places volcanic activity. A relic of Pratetis are the modern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Sea. Laurasia existed until the middle of the Mesozoic, and its the changes were the loss of North America and the subsequent reorganization of Laurasia into Eurasia. Skeleton of modern Eurasia is spliced from fragments of several ancient continents. In the center – Russian continent. In the northwest it is adjacent to the eastern part of the former Lawrence, which after Cenozoic sinking in areas of the Atlantic Ocean separated from North America and formed the European ledge of Eurasia, located west of the Russian platforms. In the northeast – Angarida, which in the late Paleozoic was articulated with the Russian continent by the folded structure of the Urals. In the south – the north-eastern parts of the disintegrated Gondwana (Arabian and Indian platforms). Gondwana Decay began in the Mesozoic, Gondwana was literally torn apart in parts. TO end of the Cretaceous – beginning of the Paleogene periods modern post-Gondwana continents and their parts – South America, Africa (without Atlas Mountains), Arabia, Australia, Antarctica. Climate Climatic data on the state of the Earth at that time also reveal additional opportunities for us us knowledge. In the terminal Riphean (680-570 million years ago), large the spaces of Europe and North America were encompassed by extensive Lapland glaciation. Glacial deposits of this age known in the Urals, in the Tien Shan, on the Russian platform (Belarus), in Scandinavia (Norway), in Greenland and the Rocky Mountains. IN the Ordovician period (500-440 million years ago) Australia was located near the South Pole, and northwest Africa – in the region of poles, as evidenced by imprinted in the Ordovician rocks African signs of widespread glaciation. In devonian period (from 410 million to 350 million years ago) the equator was located at an angle of 55 – 65 ° to the modern and went through about Caucasus, Russian platform and southern Scandinavia. North Pole was in the Pacific Ocean within 0 – 30 ° of northern latitude and 120-150 ° east longitude (in the region of Japan). Therefore, in Russian the platform climate was equatorial – dry and hot, differed a great variety of the organic world. Part of the territory of Siberia occupied the seas, whose water temperature did not drop below 25 ° C. Tropical (humid) belt, at different times of the Devonian period stretched from the modern West Siberian plain in the north to southwestern edge of the Russian platform [1, V.N. Tikhiy, Art. Devonian period]. Based on paleomagnetic study of rocks, it was found that for most of the Paleozoic and North America located in the equatorial zone. Fossil organisms and widely common limestones of this time indicate domination in the Ordovician warm shallow seas. On the contrary, on in Gondwana, the climate was polar. In South Africa (in Cape Mountains) in Table Mountain Suite, in the Congo Basin and in the southern parts of Brazil there are glacial formations (tillites) – witnesses cold circumpolar climate. In Proterozoic and Upper Carboniferous extensive glaciation developed. In South Australia, China, Norway, South Africa, southern Europe, South America within signs of Ordovician glaciation were found in this belt. Traces Upper Carboniferous Glaciation Known in Central and South Africa, southern South America, India and Australia.  Icing set in the lower proterozoic of north america in the upper riphean (Riphean – 1650-570 million years) of Africa and Australia, in Wend (680-570 million years ago) of Europe, Asia and North America, in the Ordovician of Africa, in end of Carboniferous and beginning of Perm on the mainland of Gondwana. Organic world This belt was distinguished by a poor composition. In the coal and Permian periods on the mainland of Gondwana developed a peculiar temperate and cold zone flora, which was characteristic an abundance of glossopteris and horsetail. North Devonian (arid – arid) belt covered Angarida (North Asia) and folded the constructions adjoining it from the south and east dominated continents: Angarsk, Kazakh, Baltic and North American. In Colorado (part of the former Lawrence) in fragments of the most primitive found in Ordovician sandstones vertebrates – maxillary (ostracoderm). After the end of the cycle geosynclinal development may be repeated, but always some part of geosynclinal regions at the end of the next cycle turns into a young platform. In this regard, during geological history, the area occupied by geosynclines (seas), decreased, and the area of platforms increased. Exactly geosynclinal systems were a place of formation and further the growth of the continental crust with its granite layer. Periodic the nature of vertical movements during the tectonic cycle (mainly lowering at the beginning and mainly raising to end of cycle) each time led to corresponding changes surface topography, to the change of transgressions and sea regressions. The same periodic movements influenced the nature of the deposited sedimentary rocks, as well as the climate that experienced periodic changes. Already in Precambrian warm periods were interrupted by glacial ones. IN Paleozoic glaciation spanned from time to time Brazil, South Africa, India and Australia. The last glaciation (in the Northern Hemisphere) was in anthropogen [1, Art. Earth] Fauna Above the position of the continents is confirmed by the data of faunistic zoning, according to which the Earth’s land is divided into four faunal kingdoms: Arctogeus, Paleogeus, Neogei, Notogey. Antarctic land, populated mainly by marine animals, not included in any of the kingdoms. Arctogea (“northern land”) with the grouping center on the Russian platform also includes Holarctic, Indo-Malay, Ethiopian regions and occupies Eurasia (without Hindustan and Indochina), North America, North Africa (including the Sahara). The wildlife of Arctogaea is characterized by community of origin. In the Arctogee live only placental mammals. Neogea (“new earth”, later in time, formed from the decay products of Gondwana) occupies the South, Central America from Baja California and Southern Mexican highlands in the north to 40 ° S in the south and adjacent to Central America Islands. Placental is common. Notogey (“southern land”) occupies Australia, New Zealand and the islands Oceania. The prolonged isolation of Notogei led to the formation of fauna, endemic rich (isolated species). The number of placental mammals are relatively small: mouse, bats, canids. The Paleogean occupies mainly the tropical regions of the East hemisphere. The Paleogeys are characterized by groups of animals of ancient fauna Gondwana – its Brazilian-African continent: ostriches, Lungfish, turtles, as well as proboscis, humanoid monkeys, carnivores, etc.
Australia Africa Time Himalayas Greenland India China Climate Siberia Islands Japan