A photo from open sources
From the height of a helicopter, the Yamal crater looks small hole in the ground. Approaching, you can consider going down icy walls, and water at the bottom. Around the eternal tundra and peculiar her majestic calm.
A photo from open sources
It’s hard to believe what happened here a few months ago cataclysm that exploded not only the thickness of the rocks (in the literal sense), but also news feeds (portable). Specialists of the Institute of Oil and Gas geology and geophysics them. A. A. Trofimuk SB RAS recently returned from an expedition during which they explored a funnel so that to draw conclusions about the causes of the incident.
Scientists performed geophysical research using methods tomography, magnetic exploration and radiometry, sounding formation in the near zone. The essence of the latter is next: a closed loop is laid out on the surface, then current starts, then abruptly turns off, and by another circuit measured response, which depends on the resistance of one or another structures underground.
“With it, we looked at a depth of about 300 meters, then as the tomography shows only the first 50. These are two complementary each other’s method, “the candidate comments on the expedition. Technical Sciences Vladimir Vladimirovich Potapov. Concerning magnetic and radiation background, then in the first case, as they say scientists, there are no anomalies, and in the second – indicators are slightly elevated, but this is due to the release of rocks.
The specialists worked four and a half days – not counting Of course, the time it took to deploy camps. “Something we just did not have time, we could not physically. Some they didn’t do things for security reasons, “says Leading engineer Oleg Nikolaevich Kushnarenko.
Deputy Director of INGG SB RAS Doctor of Engineering Igor Nikolayevich Yeltsov adds: “Our geophysicists had a great deal the temptation to descend into this crater, but the institute did not authorize enthusiastic scientists (although there was a climber in the squad) hazardous work. ”
Now, as Vladimir Potapov notes, it’s still difficult to say what will be the exact results because processing all The data obtained is a long process. “Anyway, I think not there will be one hundred percent confidence about the causes of the incident, – emphasizes the geophysicist, – but the work, nevertheless, must be continued, and not only to us – in all possible ways. Put forward hypotheses check them, because, firstly, the crater itself is very interesting a scientific phenomenon, and, secondly, such things can significantly affect on the development of the infrastructure of Yamal in principle. ”
A photo from open sources
In fact, scientists conducted reconnaissance work, which, however, able to very strongly advance the scientific community in understanding of what happened, and also give prerequisites for the next trips: what you need to pay closer attention to, moreover, not only on this crater, but also in places where it can potentially something similar happens.
Be that as it may, preliminary results have nevertheless been obtained. Experts speak of them carefully and with a lot of reservations, but one thing is completely clear: for one single main reason that served giant explosion, no. The whole complex worked, if you want, a bouquet of circumstances, folded in one “flower”, each of which contributed, and it is not clear what served metaphorical last straw.
First, the Yamal crater is located at the intersection tectonic faults. “Despite the fact that the region itself seismically calm territory, there is an active tectonic a life. The zone we are considering is at the junction of two major faults that cross the peninsula, ”comments Igor Yeltsov.
Vladimir Potapov continues: “Of course, this suggests the following: there was a slightly higher temperature, simply because of these “cracks” in the earth’s crust heat rises from the center of our planet. It warmed up the environment. ”
Secondly, as the chief researcher of the Institute points out Earth cryosphere SB RAS (Tyumen) doctor of geological and mineralogical Sciences Marina Oskarovna Leibman, a very warm summer happened – accordingly, heating was added also from above.
“For Yamal in general, recent seasons are characterized by increased temperatures in the warm season, which, incidentally, gives rise to a number of problems with the development of the Bovanenkovo field, ” in brackets Igor Yeltsov.
However, here one of the main participants in the event enters the scene: gas hydrates. Their release, according to the scientist, is the working hypothesis the formation of the Yamal crater: “As it turned out, they” live “in the deepest layer, which is located on the peninsula in the first hundreds meters, and in the surface. ”
“It may well be that there were some other factors that provoked what happened pneumocop. Each added a little bit – the gas exploded, and a funnel turned out, “says Vladimir Potapov.
By the way, in this respect, the assumption of The Yamal crater is connected with another hypothesis, concerning one incredible natural phenomenon – the Bermuda Triangle. Scientists – people are quite prosaic, and they did not like otherworldly explanation of the reasons for the disappearance of not only ships, but and airplanes.
“There is a version that it concerns the manifestation of gas hydrates, – Igor Yeltsov smiles. – They begin to decompose actively, methane ice turns into gas, and this happens avalanche like a nuclear reaction, and begin to stand out very its large volumes. Accordingly, warming up, the ocean boils, and floating ships are drowning in this water with a huge share of gas, but because turbulence of a supersaturated methane atmosphere – and air. ”
Unlike the Bermuda Triangle, the Yamal Crater is a phenomenon not unique. According to experts, in fact, people are things are known. True, it’s difficult to talk about their frequency, because all this happens in very sparsely populated areas.
“As we were told – stipulating that these are just rumors – on There are lakes of anomalous depth on the peninsula. To check information, even if presented in the form of semi-legends, we measured the depth of nearby bodies of water, but in all cases amounted to no more than three meters. Unusual would be considered an indicator of 10-15-20 meters, and in this case the nature is incomprehensible such lakes, given the flat terrain. So what can suggest that such disasters have occurred tens of thousands of years back, and now the remaining funnels are filled with water, “notes Oleg Kushnarenko.
A photo from open sources
The expedition of scientists was complex, its initiators Director of INGG SB RAS Academician Mikhail Ivanovich Epov and Head of Gazprom mining Nadym “Sergei Nikolaevich Menshikov.” I must say, this quite a rare case when a state corporation and scientific organization united and put together resources: we gave part money from other projects, collected equipment, spent a large amount measurements, and now we interpret the material.
Our partners provided us with helicopters and special equipment, ”says Igor Yeltsov, further explaining. -Because the it was about high concentrations of methane and the possibility of fire, quite ordinary things like electric drills could not work there, they should only be in a special version. “Also, on a trip a representative of Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC also participated in the tasks which included sampling, a description of geomorphology and others related work.
According to scientists, the Yamal crater, formed though not close to the Bovanenkovo field, but still pretty dangerous distance, once again reminds: infrastructure (including gas pipelines, buildings, engineering structures) should be created with taking into account the presence of tectonic faults in order to minimize risks. To prevent such quite rare natural phenomena that have a similar power, it is impossible – and indeed, how?
Ekaterina Pustolyakova The site “Science in Siberia” Photo provided by V. Potapov