A photo from open sources
Yamal holes – the result of the extraction of monstrous volumes of useful fossil from the bowels of the earth A group of researchers from Russia and Finland analyzed methane emissions from perennial permafrost, which is hidden under the waters of the Kara Sea. The experts agreed: permafrost is melting much faster than considered earlier, while emitting significant volumes into the atmosphere methane. On the eve of the Yamal Peninsula, a methane leak was discovered from permafrost. Photo from open sources “Why the earth farts”: news from Siberia caused a sensation on CNN. Detail predicted results scientists set out in the journals Geophysical Research Letters and Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. Permafrost on The Kara Sea shelf is melting much faster than before it was supposed, transfers vkpress.ru. The reason is the increase global ocean water temperatures caused by global changes climate as well as heat coming from the center of the earth. Melting process permafrost provokes the release of significant volumes of methane – gas, causing a powerful greenhouse effect, which means even more heating the atmosphere. The hypothesis of the presence of methane hydrate deposits in permafrost was expressed by Soviet scientists 70 years back. Methane hydrate is a combination of methane with water, externally reminiscent of compressed snow, which is highly flammable even when increasing temperature decomposes into water and gas. Volume connection 1 cc cm can emit up to 180 cubic meters. cm gas. Most often deposits methane hydrate is found in areas of permafrost. At reducing the thickness of the permafrost layer, the compound is heated and emits gas into the atmosphere. Such power emissions can be equivalent to a small explosion, notes gazeta.ru. Exist even the methane hydrate gun hypothesis, according to which the warming ocean will sooner or later start the release process offshore methane. Since methane itself is a greenhouse gas, its release into the atmosphere will increase the temperature and further growth in the release of even larger volumes. If the increase in sea water temperature will continue to go the same pace, as now, in the shallow waters of the Kara Sea may there will be a real explosion caused by a sharp release of methane on surface. What forces created these holes? Primarily, I recall the icy subsoil mounds that are called in Yakutia “Bulgunnyahs,” professor said in the special promved.ru MGRI-MGGRU Alexander Portnov. They arise in the zones of eternal frozen when pressure groundwater freezes in winter and accumulate, raising soil or rock strata. Inside such mounds are always present large ice cores. The size of the Bulgunnyakhs can be very large: up to 100-150 m across, height – up 60 m. An underground river flows at the bottom of the Yamal dip, probably in permafrost rocks, whose thickness in the north of Yamal reaches 400 m. It is possible that river waters, turning into an ice massif, raised clay cover and formed a large tubercle. Summer ice collapsed into the abyss washed with water, and the hole from the ice core remained. However, the “Yamal hole” is also similar to a typical explosion, powerful emission of gas. But not frozen in the ice, but deep, which literally permeates the Lower Cretaceous clays and sands of this the richest gas province. We don’t think about the fact that Yamal gas reserves are estimated at fourteen thousand cubic kilometers, which is 40 times the volume of the Sea of Azov! This gas lies at a depth of about two kilometers and is compressed under a monstrous pressure of about 500 atmospheres, like on the bottom of the ocean. Close to “Yamal Hole” is a huge Vobanenkovsky deposit gas. Its reserves are estimated at five thousand cubic kilometers! The White Sea has approximately the same volume. In 2013 from this deposits received 46 cubic kilometers of methane, otherwise saying 46 billion cubic meters of gas. Extracting such monstrous the volume of minerals from the bowels of the earth does not pass without a trace. Recall that the first of the “pits” was the discovery on the Yamal Peninsula giant crater. He was discovered by a helicopter of an oil and gas company. The diameter of the hole, according to various sources, is 80-100 meters. Video from depicting a hole in the ground, which seemed to have no bottom, was laid out on the Internet and caused an active discussion and a large number various assumptions about how she appeared. It turned out that the air at the bottom of the crater contains unusually high the concentration of this gas is about 9.6%. Scientists came to this conclusion as a result of research conducted on July 16, 2014 during expeditions. In all likelihood, it is associated with abnormal heat, which was observed in the summer seasons of 2012 and 2013. Temperature while kept above the average by 5 ° C. As temperature rises permafrost thawed and released jets methane, which was formerly trapped in icy ground. For Help, methane – explosive at a concentration in the air of 4.4% up to 17%. The most explosive concentration is 9.5%. Is an a drug; the action is weakened by insignificant solubility in water and blood. The hazard class is fourth. Chemist Humphrey Davy back in 1813 concluded from his analyzes that mine gas is a mixture of methane CH4 with a small amount of nitrogen N2 and carbon dioxide CO2 – i.e., that it is qualitatively identical in composition to the gas released from swamps.
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