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Such an amazing phenomenon as clairvoyance is good for everyone familiar. Moreover, we are all clairvoyants at least once in our lives – when intuition suddenly turns on, and a person knows that like this it should be done, but like that – in no case. But can a person without any technical means to see what is behind the horizon? Of course not, everyone will say. And make a mistake, because such a unique case has been reliably recorded.
It happened in the distant XVIII century. In 1739 he was born an amazing person – Etienne Bottino. He became famous for the fact that learned to predict the appearance of ships in ports without any appliances. How he succeeded, is still unsolved.
Looking ahead, let’s say that he received the nickname, which on modern language can be translated as “man-radar.” Clairvoyance in its pure form, this cannot be called – because no matter what else, except for ships, Bottino’s gift did not extend.
Detailed biographical information about Etienne Bottino is not preserved. In the Russian language there was no information about him at all until the middle of the twentieth century, until the book of South African writer Lawrence Green “Islands not touched by time.” Is known just that Bottino was born in a small town of Santoso near Anjou – a small French town in central France. In while studying at the Lyceum he showed brilliant mathematical abilities thanks to which he easily entered Polytechnic School in Nantes, in the port city located on one of the largest rivers in France – the Loire. After graduation Bottino went to serve in the French Navy and was sent to the marine arsenal in Brest as a marine engineer.
Then, unexpectedly for many, Etienne left France and set off to the distant island of Mauritius, the largest in the Mascarene group islands in the western Indian Ocean and then included composition of the UK. At that time, the island was called Ile de France.
In Port Louis, in a small French garrison, Bottino arrived in 1764 (according to other sources – in 1763). Expressing modern language, it was a typical business trip. Although the city of Port Louis where the garrison was located, was the administrative center of the overseas Department, life in it is not in full swing. It was rather possible to say that even the flies there died of boredom. Therefore in the evenings officers usually gathered together, spending a short time with cards and wine. The new engineer avoided their noisy company, preferring spend all your free time sitting on the beach and looking at the sea far away. “He left his beloved woman in France and now yearns for her, “his comrades decided and, finally finding an explanation Bottino’s strange behavior, lost all interest in the unsociable to an engineer.
Only a few months passed, and Bottino made him talk about yourself, and on every corner. He began to predict when and which ships will come to Port Louis. At first, no one believed him, but when he predictions began to come true, town dwellers and garrison officers explained this by coincidence. Then annoyed Bottino invited the officers to bet. And what’s amazing is practically always won them. There was some mysterious mystery in it, although evil tongues claimed that the matter was unclean: not otherwise the devil helps the engineer. But both those and others were mistaken.
Even during his stay in France, in Brest, Bottino in 1762 came up with an unexpected, but, as it turned out subsequently, a completely brilliant idea that moving on the sea ship approaching land should produce in the atmosphere some effect, some specific changes, somehow on it to influence. Therefore, if you learn to recognize these changes, then it will be possible to learn from them about the approach of the ship when it is still located far beyond the horizon. Etienne decided to check his theory into practice and set about training. But the weather is on the coast of the Atlantic, where Brest is located, was not very suitable for in order to verify this hypothesis by observation. Maybe just the desire to test the hypothesis was the reason to file a report on transferring to the sunny island of Mauritius? Anyway, but his the request was granted.
Half-year observations of the cloudless sky of Mauritius allowed the engineer not only to verify the validity of his hypothesis, but also develop methods for overseas vessel detection. Through for a while he could already predict when the ship would enter port. However, it also happened that, despite Bottino’s prediction, the ship did not come to Port Louis. In such cases, he thought that his hypothesis is wrong, since such annoying mistakes happen, and even almost lost faith in his talent. But over time, the engineer found an explanation for this. It happened when in the atmosphere you can was to see signs of the appearance of a ship in the ocean somewhere far over the horizon but then he followed his course past Mauritius on Madagascar or Reunion.
But the “man-radar” learned to determine the number of sailing ships and even their nationality. This is absolutely amazing! Assuming that the smallest changes in the atmosphere of his body could somehow fix, then guess the nationality by air vibrations? .. Fiction!
In 1780, Bottino wrote about his amazing abilities. the then Minister of the Navy of France, Marshal de Castries. The Minister became interested in gifting his compatriot, imbued with confidence in the unusual talents of the researcher and gave the order for two years to record all observations of amazing person. He wondered how often the predictions came true.
Bottino’s first recorded prediction relates to 15 May 1782, Radar Man reported that three were approaching the island ships that really seemed off the coast of Mauritius 17, 18 and May 25th. A month later, the Frenchman announced that he expected arrival a whole flotilla, and, as always, was not mistaken: a few days later on the ships of the French squadron, detained, appeared on the horizon calm.
The following recorded prediction dates back to July 20 of the same year. That day the weather on Ile de France was beautiful. Bottino peered into the distance stretched before him boundless ocean, and hundreds of prying eyes peered into it. Here he is, as if waking up, took a few steps and shouted loudly: “I see, I see them! In five to six days they will enter the port! “. Satisfied viewers in premonitions of imminent meetings began to diverge. And indeed a few days later a French squadron appeared on the horizon. True, not after five or six, but after nine – she was again detained in calm ways.
But once he was almost accused of quackery when “man-radar” announced that the ocean will soon appear whole fifteen ships. But they never appeared on the horizon. Above Bottino was already beginning to taunt, especially gloating him detractors and a cloud of envious people. But soon they had to swallow tongues, as it later became clear that Etienne did not make a mistake – just the admiral of the squadron, in which it was actually exactly fifteen ships, decided not to go to Mauritius and went to India
After such amazing predictions, Bottino became unusually a popular person in Mauritius. And he immediately decided take advantage of your success. For discovering the secrets of his gift Etienne demanded 100 thousand livres from the governor of the island of Le Brillin and an annual pension of 1300 livres for the fact that from 1778 to 1782 he predicted the arrival of 575 ships a few days before their appearance on the horizon. However, the governor was not at all inspired by the Frenchman’s idea. He was a very limited person, and Bottino’s discovery seemed him witchcraft. And, accordingly, did not allocate money. His servile followers began to ridicule in every way “charlatan the sorcerer.”
“These people,” wrote Bottino, “whose actions have no glimpse thoughts, do not believe anything, doubting everything, expose everything doubt, saying that I am a quack, and that I do not can to be. I am forced to live among this rabble, stupid and cruel people, mired in routine, perceiving with hostility any discovery and even news, at least one iota falling out of their own primitive understanding of the world … ”
Maddened by the ridicule of one of the bureaucratic rats, when I went to the offices of officials and proved all practical the benefit of his discovery, Etienne rebuffed him, and by order of Governor was sent to Ceylon (Madagascar), where he underwent severe deprivation and nearly died of starvation.
By the way, historians unearthed the fact of Bottino’s reference to Ceylon recently. He did not live long in Ceylon, and there he was seen by one of editors of the book “A New Biography of Contemporaries”, published in 1827 The 3rd volume of extensive work states that Bottino studied at Ceylon basics of hypnosis in the so-called school of animal magnetism and communicated with Indians who “could work miracles” (from memories of Bottino himself).
And here is what he wrote about himself: “Dear public, you can remember my experiments done in June 1793 with a large concentration the people, as well as the organized “Societe püpuler” of the city of Port Louis in May 1784. This did not at all save me from attacks by individuals, but namely: they mocked me when I predicted the availability ships near the island, but they did not come at all. Clue simple: they were not heading to our island! ”
Saved Etienne Bottino, the new governor of Mauritius, Suyak. Unlike from the former dumb predecessor, the new governor is serious reacted to the mysterious activities of Bottino, returned it to its former duty station and invited him to regularly transmit his forecasts to governor’s office.
Bottino now completely did not doubt his talent, which developed through numerous experiments, and was sure that made a real discovery. Therefore, Bottino decided to try his luck at home in France. Suyak wrote Bottino a letter of recommendation to Marshal de Castries, in which he wrote that Bottino is able to establish the proximity of ships to the island for 300, 400 and even 600 nautical miles, and added that for the past fifteen years he regularly predicted the appearance of ships three to four days before their Arrival.
Sailing on a ship to France, Bottino, in addition to writing, had I’m carrying the certificate of the Chief of Engineering of the Mauritius Island, certificate of the lawyer general of the island of Mauritius, general Commissioner of Port Louis, Admiral Soufren’s Report, confirming the reliability of his astounding predictions and greater the value of nauscopia. “Nauscopia”, or sea vision, Bottino called what he was doing – from the Greek words naus – “ship”, and skopein – to “see.”
During the voyage, Etienne discovered that, being on the ship, he can also determine the distance from the ship to the ground and other ships in the ocean before they appear in sight. So, he guessed the appearance of 27 oncoming ships. Bottino twice saved his ship “Fier” from death. The first time he warned the captain that to the earth, not visible to the naked eye, no more than 30 leagues (marine league – the unit of length in the UK is 5.56 km). “The captain said that this cannot be,” wrote Bottino. “ However, having carefully examined the navigation calculations, I was forced to to admit that a mistake crept in them, and immediately changed course. (Ahead was not land, but reefs. – OB). Throughout the journey I determined the land three times, once at a distance of 150 leagues. ”
The second time the captain changed course when Bottino warned him, that the ships of the English corsairs go towards.
France met the “radar man” coolly. Bottino sought meeting with the Minister of the Navy, but the audience never took place. Obviously, detractors from Mauritius tried. Botino and the political situation in the country prevented: the monarchy lived out the last days, thunderclouds of the French were approaching the revolution and the authorities were not up to the “tricks” of the little-known researcher. In the meantime, Bottino in every way entertained the Le Havre audience, betting on early arrival date predictions ships to the port.
The press called him a quack and a warlock, many They pointed at Bottino with a finger and laughed.
But not all newspapers were so short-sighted. A little bit later, in 1785, in the French newspaper Mercure de France were Excerpts from Etienne Bottino’s Memoirs on nauscopies. ”
Judging by the press reports of that time, abilities colonial engineer became interested in one of the leaders of the Jacobins, Jean-Paul Marat, who, in addition to publishing the newspaper “Friend of the People”, calling for the overthrow of the monarchy, just then wrote a treatise on physics (Marat was engaged in research in the field of optics). But apparently they still failed to meet them. But Marat wrote a letter to his friend Dali in London. And although Marat himself is rather skeptical related to the discovery of Bottino, in his letter he wrote that “do not neglect the testimonies of hundreds of people, certificates, which Bottino received from high-ranking officials, “and expressed the hope that an impartial assessment would be made in England his discovery.
Bottino got the idea to go to England, he hoped that in this marine country will appreciate the value of nauscopia. TO Unfortunately, for various reasons, Bottino’s trip there is not took place.
In 1793, Etienne left the revolution burning in the fire unfriendly France and returned to Mauritius. He is there continued to amaze people with his predictions.
He later served in Reunion, then again in Mauritius. In the end of his “Memoirs of Nauskopiya” Bottino wrote: “I became another a victim of colonial routine on distant, forgotten by God and science islands that suffer from the despotism of officials. If irritation and disappointment will cause my demise before than I can explain my discovery, the world will lose for some a time of knowledge of art that would honor XVIII century. ”
The world has not received this knowledge. Etienne Bottino died on the island Mauritius May 17, 1813 at the age of 74, never opening his secrets.
Nevertheless, in Mauritius, Bottino found followers. 22 November 1810, a resident of Panplemuss, someone Feyyafe, who worked before Bottino, he discovered, he claimed, the English fleet, heading to the island. Feyyaf later distinctly recognized on northeast congestion of ships that moved towards the island Rodriguez, but could not determine their exact number. He continued observation and made sure when the fleet came closer, although it has not yet appeared on the horizon.
Feyyafe went to Port Louis. “After 48 hours,” he said, “we see the English fleet. ”Panic erupted in the city. Feyyafe“ by the reason for the spread of false rumors “put in jail, however just in case, they sent a ship to Rodriguez to find out what was there going on. But it was too late. November 26, first 20, and then another 34 ships of the British Royal Navy appeared off the coast Ile de France … Feyyafe released only after the capture of the island the British. Mauritian historian Pierre de Sornay believes that Feyyafe was probably the only one Bottino taught his amazing craftsmanship.
Information about the mysterious talent of Bottino is contained in the Secret memoirs serving to cover the history of the Republic from 1764 to of our days. “In the 12th volume of this peculiar chronicle of France XVIII in. there is an entry dated April 30, 1785: “Monsieur Bottino, old Employee of the East India Company on the Ile-de-France and Bourbon Islands (Reunion – OB), just posted a note for the government, in which he insists that he found a physical detection method ships at distances up to 250 leagues (sea leagues is 5.556 km). is he opened it about twenty years ago; … began to report in advance about the arrival of ships, their number and the distance from the coast … One of the most His impressive results were a prediction of the appearance of the English fleet, including the corvette and frigate, approached two days later. This fact was mentioned by officers and admirals who were at that time. time on the islands. ”
And here is a record dated July 28, 1785: “Bottino in one of the letters explains his phenomenal abilities by the fact that he graduated from high school animal magnetism in Colombo, where he lived and communicated with the Indians, that can work wonders. In Paris over Bottino’s abilities laughed Count M. de Sepor, who ridiculed all hypnotists in general. ” Meanwhile, the facts of divination Bottino parish or close passage of ships was confirmed in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. newspaper reports and ship log entries.
What kind of gift did Etienne Bottino have? He himself is his secret and didn’t reveal it to anyone – not counting Feyyafe and, according to some information, one more person, and even then not completely. But in Mauritius preserved his letter to Marat, which, in particular, states: “A ship approaching the shore produces a certain exposure to the atmosphere, whereby approximation may be detected by an experienced eye before the ship reaches the limits visibility. I stayed on the island for only six months when I was convinced in his discovery, and could only gain experience so that nauscopia has become a genuine science. ”
Among the documents left by Bottino there is also an explanatory note with the following explanation: “vision” is not is the result of some kind of heightened feeling – extraordinary vigilance or intuition. It is associated with monitoring horizon where certain atmospheric or meteorological phenomena notifying of the approach ships or land.
You only need to be able to distinguish them from clouds and others atmospheric formations. My predictions were favored clear skies and clear atmosphere that most of the year dominate the Ile de France. ”
Modern scientists have put forward many hypotheses explaining The amazing and mysterious phenomenon of Etienne Bottino. According to one of hypotheses, such a striking prediction of Bottino is associated with mirages so frequent at sea. Sometimes when the lower layers of air cooled, and the upper warmed up by the sun, on the border between them an “air mirror” is formed. Here it reflects very distant objects hidden behind the horizon. You only need to be able to “read” these often faint and obscure reflections. In Mauritius, favorable weather conditions are especially common.
And the fact that such “mirrors” exist confirms at least “New Earth effect”. In the years 1595-1597. for the search for the northeast The expedition was equipped with routes from Europe to India, China and Japan. Its leader, Willem Barents, kept a diary where he contributed various natural phenomena noticed by him. Among other things, there is a description wintering in Novaya Zemlya. It states that two weeks before wintering season saw the end of the polar night in the black sky … the sun.
This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed later in the Antarctic and The Arctic. It can only be explained by the presence of “air mirrors. ”
And not only at sea a similar phenomenon was observed. French astronomer Camil Flammarion in the work “Atmosphere” writes about the terrible Fata Morgan, which appeared to the residents of the Belgian town of Verviers June 15, 1815 – cavalry raced through the air, firing soundlessly guns, infantry was moving to attack. That day, 105 km from Verviers the battle of Waterloo began …
But this hypothesis does not hold water, because it does not before each event, and especially not before each ship there is an “air mirror” or veil morgan. But assuming that in front of everyone, why didn’t I see anything like this anymore no one?!
The following hypothesis does not exclude that Etienne Bottino was helped and the so-called “messenger clouds”, which quite often observed in the Sahara desert. The original inhabitants of those places – Tuaregs – when appearing on a generally clear horizon, small oblong the clouds knew that a caravan would come to them soon. And indeed a few hours later he appeared from behind the dunes. So quite it is likely that such an effect is at sea, only about it nobody knows existence or is it so subtle that ordinary people just don’t catch it? Quite possibly.
In support of this hypothesis, such a fact also works. At studying photographs of the ocean obtained from space, attention experts were attracted by two pictures. On one was clearly visible a passenger ship, followed by a long chip track. On the another shot taken in the next round, the ship was already gone visible, but in its place was a chain of clouds, repeating exactly ship way.
Most likely, Bottino was right – the atmosphere reacts to passage of ships. Through constant training, he learned to distinguish in heaven even the weakest “mappings” of real ships far beyond the horizon and knew what time days, the atmosphere is most favorable for observations. Appearance “messenger clouds” and the speed of their movement allowed him quite accurately make your predictions.
However, there is a very significant “but.” Etienne Bottino did their forecasts not only on the sunny island of Mauritius, but also in the port Le Havre, where the abundance of clouds would have to blur the picture. However he almost never made a mistake there.
The second question that concerns thinking scientists: how is Bottino could find out under the flag of which state the ship is sailing? Official science has answered this question! Allegedly, the thing is that ships of each country differed in form and seaworthiness. The keen look and training of the “man-radar” helped recognize him and such nuances.
In principle, this explanation, although far-fetched, may take place. In only one “but” prevents to agree with him: quite often ships built in one maritime power went under flags of other maritime powers.
Another hypothesis has recently appeared explaining the phenomenon. Bottino. It relies on the fact that some people can contact the global information field in which contains information about everything that once happened, is happening and will happen in the future. Moreover, such a “connection” happens better when the psychic is in a trance. Quite it is possible that Bottino, contemplating the vast expanses of the ocean and thinking about ships, fell into a state that allowed to “read” information coming to him. Knowing the insidiousness of the sea elements, he made corrections for the wind and calculated when the ships could actually arrive at the port. Hence the errors that sometimes arise.
But Botino made references to the “atmospheric nature” of predictions, most likely because he was accused of being phenomenal he acquired abilities in the school of animal magnetism. And it threatened holding him accountable for dealing with evil spirits – with all the ensuing consequences.
Another hypothesis states that the Etienne Bottino phenomenon is a subject to study in terms of dowsing, which many animals.
According to another hypothesis, Bottino had a narrowly expressed gift clairvoyance, or rather, vision. This explanation may also have place, that’s just not a single one recorded in history cases when the gift of vision was expressed really like that narrowly.
Be that as it may, when a tired and exhausted “radar man” Etienne Bottino passed away, he took away the secret of lasciviousness with him in the grave. But in Mauritius, locals still remember the mountain Montagn Long, on which Etienne Bottino conducted his experiments – “radar man.”
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