A photo from open sources
In Siberia, scientists explored the Yamal crater. A photo: copah.info.
From the height of a helicopter, the Yamal crater looks small hole in the ground. Approaching, you can consider going down icy walls, and water at the bottom. Around the eternal tundra and peculiar her majestic calm. It’s hard to believe that several months ago there was a cataclysm that blew up not only the thickness breeds (in the literal sense), but also news feeds (figuratively). Specialists of the Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics named after A. A. Trofimuka SB RAS recently returned from an expedition during which investigated the funnel in order to draw conclusions about the reasons what happened, according to the publication of the SB RAS “Science in Siberia”.
Scientists performed geophysical research using methods tomography, magnetic exploration and radiometry, sounding formation in the near zone. The essence of the latter is next: a closed loop is laid out on the surface, then current starts, then abruptly turns off, and by another circuit measured response, which depends on the resistance of one or another structures underground. “With it, we watched the depth about 300 meters, while tomography shows only the first 50. These are two complementary methods, “- says the participant expedition candidate of technical sciences Vladimir Vladimirovich Potapov. As for the magnetic and radiation background, in the first case, as scientists say, there are no anomalies, and in the second – indicators slightly elevated, but this is due to the release of rocks.
The specialists worked four and a half days – not counting Of course, the time it took to deploy camps. “Something we just did not have time, we could not physically. Some they didn’t do things for security reasons, “says Leading engineer Oleg Nikolaevich Kushnarenko. Deputy Director INGG SB RAS Doctor of Technical Sciences Igor Nikolaevich Yeltsov complements: “Our geophysicists had a great temptation to descend into this crater, but the institute did not sanction enthusiastic scientists (although there was a climber in the squad) such dangerous work. ”
Now, as Vladimir Potapov notes, it’s still difficult to say what will be the exact results because processing all The data obtained is a long process. Vladimir Potapov, participant expeditions, candidate of technical sciences:
In any case, I think there will not be one hundred percent confidence in about the reasons for what happened, ”the geophysicist emphasizes,“ but the work, Nevertheless, it is necessary to continue, and not only to us – by all possible ways. Put forward hypotheses, test them, because, firstly, the crater itself is a very interesting scientific phenomenon, and, secondly, such things can significantly affect the development of infrastructure Yamal in principle.
In fact, scientists conducted reconnaissance work, which, however, able to very strongly advance the scientific community in understanding of what happened, and also give prerequisites for the next trips: what you need to pay closer attention to, moreover, not only on this crater, but also in places where it can potentially something similar happens.
Be that as it may, preliminary results have nevertheless been obtained. Experts speak of them carefully and with a lot of reservations, but one thing is completely clear: for one single main reason that served giant explosion, no. The whole complex worked, if you want, a bouquet of circumstances, folded in one “flower”, each of which contributed, and it is not clear what served metaphorical last straw.
First, the Yamal crater is located at the intersection tectonic faults. “Despite the fact that the region itself seismically calm territory, there is an active tectonic a life. The zone we are considering is at the junction of two major faults that cross the peninsula, ”comments Igor Yeltsov. Vladimir Potapov continues: “Of course, this speaks of next: there was a slightly higher temperature, simply because that along these “cracks” in the earth’s crust heat rises from the center of our planet. It warmed up the environment. ”
Secondly, as the chief researcher of the Institute points out Earth cryosphere SB RAS (Tyumen) doctor of geological and mineralogical Sciences Marina Oskarovna Leibman, a very warm summer happened – accordingly, heating was added also from above. “For Yamal in general recent seasons are characterized by elevated temperatures in the warm season, which causes, incidentally, a number of problems with the arrangement Bovanenkovskoye field, ”Igor notes in parentheses Yeltsov.
However, here one of the main participants in the event enters the scene: gas hydrates. Their release, according to the scientist, is the working hypothesis the formation of the Yamal crater: “As it turned out, they” live “in the deepest layer, which is located on the peninsula in the first hundreds meters, and in the surface. ”
“It may well be that there were some other factors that provoked what happened pneumocop. Each added a little bit – the gas exploded, and a funnel turned out, “says Vladimir Potapov.
By the way, in this respect, the assumption of The Yamal crater is connected with another hypothesis, concerning one incredible natural phenomenon – the Bermuda Triangle. Scientists – people are quite prosaic, and they did not like otherworldly explanation of the reasons for the disappearance of not only ships, but and airplanes. “There is a version that it concerns manifestations gas hydrates, – smiles Igor Yeltsov. – They start actively decompose, methane ice turns into gas, moreover, it occurs like an atomic reaction, and they start very large volumes stand out. Accordingly, warming up, the ocean boils, and ships drown in this water with a huge share of gas floating, but because of the turbulence of the methane-saturated atmosphere – and air. ”
Unlike the Bermuda Triangle, the Yamal Crater is a phenomenon not unique. According to experts, in fact, people are things are known. True, it’s difficult to talk about their frequency, because all this happens in very sparsely populated areas. “Like us told – stipulating that these are just rumors – on the peninsula there are lakes of anomalous depth. To check the information, even if presented in the form of semi-legends, we measured the depth nearby water bodies, but in all cases it amounted to no more three meters. Unusual, a figure of 10-15-20 would be considered meters, and in this case the nature of such lakes is unclear, given flat terrain. So we can assume that such cataclysms occurred tens of thousands of years ago, and now the remaining the funnels are filled with water, “notes Oleg Kushnarenko.
The expedition of scientists was complex, its initiators Director of INGG SB RAS Academician Mikhail Ivanovich Epov and Head of Gazprom mining Nadym “Sergei Nikolaevich Menshikov.” I must say, this quite a rare case when a state corporation and scientific organization united and put together resources: we gave part money from other projects, collected equipment, spent a large amount measurements, and now we interpret the material. Our partners provided us with helicopters and special equipment, says Igor Yeltsov, further explaining. —Because it was about high methane concentrations and potential for ignition, common things such as electric drills could not work there, they should only be in special performance. “In addition, also participated in the trip and representative of Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, whose tasks included sampling, description of geomorphology and other related work.
According to scientists, the Yamal crater, formed though not close to the Bovanenkovo field, but still pretty dangerous distance, once again reminds: infrastructure (including gas pipelines, buildings, engineering structures) should be created with taking into account the presence of tectonic faults in order to minimize risks. To prevent such quite rare natural phenomena that have a similar power, it is impossible – and indeed, how?
Bermuda Triangle Water Time Siberia