What do black holes hide?

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Somehow in the late 1960s one of the most famous physicists last century, John Wheeler (1911-2008) performed in popular science broadcast of the Air Force. He is long and colorful talked about different cosmic miracles, and in the end he went on to the patient’s question for him about all kinds of “incorrect observations and mythical objects. ”

Here an American scientist fervently attacked the hypothesis the existence of “frozen” (dark, frozen) stars, which was he especially does not like. Expressing his contempt for these “physical and mathematical fantasies,” he called them “black holes. ”So, with Wheeler’s light hand the figurative term is“ black hole ” appeared in the media, and then in scientific papers.

Bottomless space-time dips

Today we call the result of the most surprising black hole a natural phenomenon – the fall “inside themselves” of massive celestial tel. In Latin, collapsus means “fallen,” and therefore black holes astronomers are often called “collapsars.” They are inherent in such superstrong “concentrator” of the gravitational field that nothing, including light cannot escape out of them.

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Historically, black holes were preceded by dark stars, open “at the tip of the pen” by British astronomer John Michell (1724-1793 years). Based on Newton’s theory of universal gravitation, Mitchell described such stars whose gravitational force kept even the rays Sveta. Naturally, to notice such an absolutely black star was would be impossible. Michell outlined his calculations at a meeting Royal Society of London in 1784 and immediately came under fire of criticism. After all, astronomy of that time did not have such phenomena. I knew!

So the idea of ​​dark stars, or, as they are called today, “Newtonian” black holes, was buried for a long time in scientific archives. She was remembered only in the era of Albert Einstein. (1879-1955) and his theory of universal gravitation. Theory Einstein connected gravity with the curvature of space and immediately attracted the attention of many physicists.

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His colleague at the Berlin Academy of Sciences Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) managed to show that sometimes very concentrated giant masses can form a bottomless funnel space-time.

Near the collapsar Schwarzschild would have to occur amazing things: a person’s heart would begin to beat less and less less commonly, his watch is hopelessly behind, and the light around it is blushing. The flow of time itself would slow down, up to freezing near conditional border of a black hole, like a river in frost. Well, what are we see in the depths of the cosmic collapse collapse?

Alas, strange things happen there that just impossible to describe popularly. However, many physicists argue though about the internal structure of black holes, theoretically already found them application.

Metro Between Galaxies

More than 30 years ago, the famous astronomer and science fiction writer Karl Sagan decided to write a novel about interstellar travel and yet engage in empty fantasies, and create on your pages books “real” non-spatial tunnel. For discussion details, he turned to a prominent theoretical physicist Kip Thorne, and he with enthusiastically set about computing.

Thorne and his collaborators convincingly proved mathematically that space-time channel can not only be artificially create, but also maintain in a “working” state. Created so the way the “wormhole” in space-time would bind not only distant corners of our galaxy, but also metagalactic open spaces.

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The collaboration of Sagan and Thorne led to the emergence of science fiction bestseller “Contact”, soon put in the basis of a very spectacular film of the same name. There really there is a kind of “subway” between the galaxies, along which the main character travels. Meanwhile wheeler criticized not only black holes, but also all sorts of subspace transitions between them. With great sarcasm, he called them “wormholes” wormholes and wormholes. Just amazing, but these expressions first entered the vocabulary of journalists, and then migrated to scientific work.

Science fiction literature often talks about the most exotic ways to transcend space and time. Even born peculiar tactics of future “star wars” when the battle fleet earthlings “dives” into the subspace of a black hole and unexpectedly emerges right at the bases of hostile aliens, instantly rushing billions of parsec.

However, judging by astronomical observations, black holes will require titanic efforts for their “taming”, because they are the most dangerous space objects that form the “relief” The universe.

“Space cannibals”

Often astronomers capture monstrous bursts of energy, coming from far space. It could be echoes dramatic processes of death of planets and stars in black dips holes. Space monsters tear gas body carelessly approaching stars and completely “swallow” smaller ones celestial bodies – planets, comets and asteroids.

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The black hole draws the side toward it close a passing star is much stronger than the opposite. Such powerful tidal force stretches the star and causes gas to fall from stars in a black hole. Astronomers have concluded that black holes are not born huge, but gradually grow due to gas and stars of galaxies.

Among the black holes there are also large fidgets, rapidly moving inside the stellar islands of galaxies. Together with their settled settlers, these “space cannibals” are constantly not only absorb planetary systems like our solar, but also dust and gas clouds swallowing between the stellar congestions.

Astronomers have long noticed that in smaller galaxies, black holes less massive, their masses are slightly more than a few million solar masses. Black holes in the centers of giant galaxies include billions of solar masses- The thing is that the final mass of the black hole is formed during the formation galaxies. In some cases, black holes increase not only due to the absorption of gas of an individual galaxy, but also by fusion galaxies, causing their black holes to merge.

At the very center of the Milky Way is the core of our Galaxy, in which the mysterious object Sagittarius A * is hidden. Astronomers believe that this is the main contender for the role of a black hole weighing about four million solar masses.

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From time to time, our local “cannibal” devours this or that a star. And then special X-ray telescopes register the “death cry” of the star in the form of an impulse x-ray radiation. It is with his help that our internal organs in the x-ray room.

However, black holes can be quite peaceful, forming double star systems with ordinary luminaries. However this idyll also ends tragically, and after hundreds of millions, or maybe billions of years, the distance between a black hole and a star will be reduced to critical limit. The motion of the star will become unstable even after a few revolutions around the black monster she will disappear into his the belly.

The mystery of the Tunguska meteorite

In principle, you can create an artificial black hole. For this any mass must be compressed to the size of the gravitational radius (radius the sphere in which the gravitational force created by the mass inside this sphere, tends to infinity.), and then she herself will begin catastrophically shrink – collapse.

True, it’s very difficult to do this, because the smaller the mass, the smaller the gravitational radius. For example, gravitational radius Earth is approximately one centimeter, and in order to turn into the black hole of the moon, it would have to be squeezed to the size of a large molecules.

Nevertheless, using models of microscopic holes, or, as their often called microcollapsars, sometimes try to explain all sorts of mysterious phenomena. So, there is a hypothesis that the famous The Tunguska meteorite was nothing more than a miniature black hole, wandering around the vastness of the universe.

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You could, of course, just shrug off such fabrications, but here there are curious details: the complete absence of residues meteorite, the unusual nature of the explosion and conflicting observations flight paths.

There are ideas that such a microcollap-sar had a completely terrestrial origin. The fact is that it was during the fall of the Tunguska meteorite the great American inventor Nikola Tesla (1856-1943 years) experienced a wave on the amazing tower Wondercliff resonator which using the “standing waves of the world electric ether “was supposed to transmit energy on a global scale.

City legends tell how over the Podkamennaya Tunguska a colossal plasmoid flared up, instantly collapsing into black mini hole. This process caused a hurricane of energy, recorded as Tunguska miracle.

There is also a variant of this hypothesis, in which Tunguska himself the meteorite was just a miniature black hole, with enormous speed pervading our planet.

How plausible are the conclusions of theoretical physicists? Exist whether worm moves in space-time, or Is it just a kind of “physical and mathematical science fiction”? AND the most important question: is it possible to offer any real experiments to create artificial subspace moles holes leading into the space of other dimensions?

TANK – Doomsday Machine or Generator microcollapsars?

Calculations show that microscopic black holes are quite may occur in experiments on particle accelerators, such as the widely known Large Hadron Collider (LHC), launched at CERN.

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The principle of the LHC is theoretically quite simple: imagine a pipe in which two giant cannons shoot towards each other to a friend with special shells – elementary particles, of which atoms are made up. When meeting, these microscopic shells crumble fireworks of all kinds of fragments, among which there may be microscopic black holes.

If LHC physicists detect these micro-objects, then scientific sensation far surpasses the recent discovery of the “particle of God” – the boson Higgs.

Some scientists believe that micro-collapsars are very dangerous objects that could lead to a planetary disaster. Launch The LHC was accompanied by protests, and a group of physicists even filed in court on CERN as an organization exposing humanity mortal danger.

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In the end, the passions subsided somewhat, as physicists clearly showed that every moment on the earth’s surface avalanches of cosmic particles collapse, far exceeding energy collision products in the LHC. Threads however cosmic rays of superhigh energies do not represent any dangers and do not generate microscopic black holes.

On the other hand, computer models show that if A mini-hole visited the earth, then it would have fallen to the center of our planet and would begin to revolve around it, absorbing magma. But no matter how sinister this process may seem, so that it somehow manifested on the surface, it will take several billion years. So that, quite possibly, we have long been living with a black hole under kicking …

The future of the universe and life in a black hole

It is not known whether it will exist in billions of years humanity, but optimally astronomers of the distant future will be able to observe a completely different Metagalaxy – the visible Universe. Most stars will burn, and sun-like bodies will turn into superdense dwarfs. At the same time, more massive stars will become black holes that are even smaller and have such a strong a gravitational field that even light cannot overcome it.

However, these residues will still rotate around the center. Galaxies with a period of about 100 million years. Clashes between the remnants will throw some of them away from the Galaxy. Rest will be established in closer to the center orbits and in the end come together to form a giant black in the center of the galaxy a hole that one day swallows all matter.

What will it be – the end of life and reason in our universe?

Let’s not rush, because some modern theories predict that in the terrible depths of black holes can there are entire planets revolving indefinitely center point. According to preliminary calculations, such planets even can be brightly lit due to photons trapped from the outside holes and rotating together with other bodies on the same stable orbit.

It remains to solve only the last question: is it possible on the planets black hole exist life? According to individual theorists, perhaps such. Moreover, fleeing from cosmic disasters, our future advanced civilization can find the real shelter in the bowels of a supermassive black hole occupying the core Milky Way.

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Of course, black hole colonizers will have to solve a number of grandiose challenges such as countering colossal tidal forces and protection from the strongest radiation flows. However from the point view of the evolution of the mind civilization that managed to penetrate black hole, will have truly fabulous technology, able to solve the most fantastic problems.

Perhaps after a few millennia human civilization will be completely free to open portals to other worlds. In this case, a variety of options may arise: wormholes between the distant parts of our galaxy, subspace tunnels between galaxies at the very edge of the universe, bridges between past and future, wormholes in other worlds.

Then humanity of the future is not afraid of any cosmic disaster, and it will be able to travel freely in various universes, choosing a favorable habitat. Moreover, Having figured out how universes are born and why they are various properties, super-civilization can tackle through the necks black holes search ready-made and the creation of new worlds, more adapted for life and not subject to various kinds cataclysms.

So what do black holes hide in themselves? Way to other worlds unlimited energy of the future, the last breath of the Universe or civilizations of aliens?

It is possible that the answers to some of these questions will already know current generation of students and schoolchildren. We can only wait for that exciting moment when astronomers can finally initiate a direct study of candidates for gravitational collapsars. ”


Hadron Collider Time Universe Galaxy Life Milky Way Monsters Nikola Tesla Black Hole Einstein

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